The toccatas in the Italian lute and theorbo repertoires of the early seventeenth century: a contribution to the history of instrumental music in the beginning of the Baroque

Louw, Zirk Walter Eon (2019-12)

Thesis (PhD (Music))--Stellenbosch University, 2019

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Published in 1604, Giovanni Girolamo Kapsperger’s Libro primo d’intavolatura di chitarone, holds interest not only for being the first printed book of theorbo music, but also for its six toccatas, which are presented at the beginning of the volume. These highly innovative works substituted for the contrapuntal genres, namely the fantasias and the intabulations of vocal music, which traditionally formed the bulk of the non-dance repertoire in lute manuscripts and prints in the sixteenth century. Toccatas are also featured in Kapsperger’s subsequent lute and theorbo prints. Moreover, this genre enjoyed considerable significance in the oeuvre of other seventeenth-century Italian lutenists, too. Yet, the assumption that the toccata was primarily a keyboard genre has meant that the toccatas in the seventeenth-century lute and theorbo repertoires have received little scholarly attention to date. This is exacerbated by the fact that, owing to the disappearance of the lute family in the later eighteenth century, the lute and its repertoire largely remain a rather specialised and obscure tract of scholarly research. This is hardly representative of the prominent position which the instrument enjoyed in Western music in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This inquiry provides an overview of the toccatas in the Italian lute and theorbo repertoires of the first half of the seventeenth century, a geographical and periodical focus which reflects the actual concentration of the printed and manuscript sources of lute toccatas. These works present departures from contrapuntal traditions but are also to be understood as derivatives of certain trends which were already present in the sixteenth-century lute repertoire too. The analyses therefore serve to contextualise the toccatas as manifestations of the broader musical milieu of the early Baroque. Cognisance is taken not only of musical-stylistic changes, but also of the increasing idiomaticity in instrumental music, the significant shifts in reception and patronage, as well as of the compositional and performance settings. In order to allow a better evaluation and to facilitate further research, the second volume of this study presents transcriptions from the original tablature into staff musical notation, of a representative selection of toccatas from printed and manuscript sources. This inquiry contributes to an alternative view of the toccata genre and provides new insights into the early Baroque.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Girolamo Giovanni Kapsperger se Libro primo d’intavolatura di chitarone, wat in 1604 gepubliseer is, is nie alleenlik van belang vir sy rol as die eerste gedrukte musiek vir die teorbe nie, maar ook vir die ses toccatas wat aan die begin van die boek voorkom. Die kontrapuntale genres, wat tradisioneel die nie-dans genres van die 16de eeuse repertorium in die manuskripte en gedrukte boeke verteenwoordig het, word deur hierdie verbeeldingryke stukke vervang. Toccatas kom ook voor in Kapsperger se latere luit- en teorbeboeke. Hierdie genre het ook 'n beduidende plek in die oeuvre van ander 17de eeuse Italiaanse luitspelers gehad. Desnieteenstaande het die hardnekkige aanname dat die toccata uitsluitlik 'n genre vir klawerbordinstrumente was daartoe gelei dat die toccatas in die luit- en teorberepertoriums tot dusver min musiekwetenskaplike aandag gekry het. Die feit dat die luitfamilie teen die einde van die 18de eeu grotendeels uitgesterf het, het ongelukkig ook daartoe gelei dat die luit en sy repertorium vandag 'n gespesialiseerde vertakking van musiekwetenskaplike navorsing is. In dié opsig reflekteer dit nie die prominente plek wat die instrument in Westerse musiek gedurende die 16de en 17de eeue ingeneem het nie. Hierdie studie bied dus 'n oorsig van die toccatas in die Italiaanse luit- en teorborepertoriums van die eerste helfte van die 17de eeu. Dit verteenwoordig die geografies en histories belangrikste manuskrip- en gedrukte bronne van hierdie repertorium. Die toccatas toon terselfdertyd afwykings van die kontrapuntale tradisies, asook 'n voortsetting van sekere tendense wat reeds in die 16de eeuse luitrepertorium voorgekom het. Die ontledings dien dus om die toccatas te kontekstualiseer as manifesterings van die breër musikale milieu van die vroeë Barok. Bykomstig tot musikaal-stilistiese kenmerke word ook aandag gegee aan aspekte soos 'n toenemend idiomatiese styl in instrumentale musiek, beduidende veranderinge ten opsigte van luistergewoontes, resepsie en beskermheerskap sowel as 'n nuwe komposisionele en uitvoeringsomgewing. Ter wille van optimale insig, asook om verdere navorsing aan te moedig, bied die tweede deel van hierdie studie 'n aansienlike aantal transkripsies vanuit die oorspronklike tablatuurnotasie na moderne musieknotasie. Hierdie ondersoek dra by tot 'n alternatiewe siening van die toccatagenre en bied nuwe insigte in die musiek van die vroeë Baroktydperk.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107333
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