Identifying temperature breaks in the initial stages of the cold chain for Clementines and Navel oranges : a Western Cape case

Conradie, Christoff Anton (2019-12)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : South Africa is the second largest exporter of citrus fruits in the world, with only Spain exporting higher volumes. It is the country’s third most exported horticultural product after deciduous fruits and vegetables. It is a growing industry, not only globally, but in South Africa as well. However, the industry, including the Citrusdal region, is concerned that South Africa loses a considerable amount of fresh fruit each year as a result of breaks in the cold chain. Citrus exports from Citrusdal to the USA are susceptible to temperature breaks because exporters predominantly use conventional vessels to ship the fruit and, therefore, the cold chain consists of various role players. Company J proposed this study, which was a case approach that attempted to identify the prominence, location and causes of temperature breaks along the initial stages of the export cold chain of Clementines and Navel oranges from Citrusdal in the Western Cape of South Africa to the Port of Newark in New Jersey, USA. The study then attempted to provide solutions to the problems that caused the temperature breaks. A power analysis determined a sample size of 144 temperature devices, distributed over two cultivars. Thus, the researcher determined, by means of judgement sampling (mainly influenced by seasonality and availability), to conduct the research on Clementines and Navel oranges. After collecting the data, the researcher combined each individual device’s temperature data into a single Excel file per consignment (there were four consignments in total), after which the researcher utilised Tableau® to construct time-series line graphs and box-and-whisker plots that visually depicted individual temperature breaks during the export cold chain. Furthermore, the researcher used Excel’s “tables” function to construct tables of dispersion that illustrated the severity of the temperature breaks. The data analysis identified temperature spikes and temperature breaks in each segment of the export chain and discovered that the farm segment significantly outperformed the post-farm segment. There were consistent temperature breaks / temperature spikes during the transportation segment, inspection segment during the cold storage stage, and switchover to Steri during the cold storage stage. The findings indicated that the industry’s concern regarding fruit loss, as a result of temperature breaks, is grounded and that temperature breaks are prominent during the export cold chains of Clementines and Navel oranges from Citrusdal to the Port of Newark. In an increasingly competitive global citrus market, it is important for producers in the Citrusdal region to address the issues that the study identified, in order to remain competitive and continue producing the high-quality citrus for which the region is known. The recommendations chapter provides possible solutions to the problems that the study identified and emphasises that avoidable temperature breaks should be eliminated, and unavoidable temperature breaks should be minimised.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Suid-Afrika is die tweede grootste uitvoerder van sitrusvrugte in die Wêreld, dit word slegs deur Spanje oortref. Dit is die land se derde mees uitgevoerde hortologiese produk, na bladwisselende vrugte en groente. Dit is wêreldwyd, sowel as in Suid-Afrika, ‘n groeiende bedryf. Die Suid-Afrikaanse bedryf, insluitend die Citrusdalstreek, is bekommmerd dat ‘n aansienlike hoeveelheid vars vrugte elke jaar verlore gaan as gevolg van breke in die koue ketting. Uitvoersitrus vanaf die Citrusdalstreek na die VSA is vatbaar vir breke in die koue ketting omdat uitvoerders grootlik konvensionele verskeping gebruik om die vrugte uit te voer en, sodoende, ‘n koue ketting veroorsaak wat uit verskeie rolspelers bestaan. Maatskappy J het hierdie studie voorgestel. Die studie het ‘n geval-benadering gevolg wat beoog het om die prominensie, posisie en oorsake van temperatuur breke gedurende die aanvanklike stadiums van die uitvoer koue ketting van Clementines en Navel lemone vanaf Citrusdal in die Wes-Kaap van Suid-Afrika tot in die Newark hawe, New Jersey in die VSA, te identifiseer. Daarna maak die studie voorstelle om die probleme wat die temperatuur breke veroorsaak op te los. ‘n Kraganalise het ‘n steekproefgrootte van 144 temperatuur toestelle, versprei oor twee kultivars, bepaal. Deur die gebruik van oordeelsteekproefneming (hoofsaaklik beïnvloed deur seisoenaliteit en beskikbaarheid) het die navorser op Clementines en Navel lemoene besluit. Nadat die data ingesamel is, het die navorser elke individuele toestel se temperatuur data kombineer in ‘n enkele Excel sigblad per besending. Daar was vier besendings in totaal. Daarna het die navorser Tableau gebruik om tydsreeks-lyngrafieke en “mond-en-snor” diagramme op te stel, met die doel om die data grafies te illustreer. Verder het die navorser Excel se “tabelle” funksie gebruik om tabelle van verspreiding op te stel wat die erns van die temperatuur breke illustreer het. Die data-analise het temperatuur breke en temperatuur stygings tydens elke segment van die uitvoer koue ketting identifiseer en het bepaal dat die plaassegment aansienlik beter vaar as die post-plaassegment. Daar was konstante temperatuur breke/ temperatuur stygings gedurende die vervoer segment, inspeksie segment van die koelstoorfase en oorskakeling vanaf die koelstoor na die Sterikamers. Die bevindinge het aangedui dat die bedryf se kommer oor die verlies van vrugte, as gevolg van breke in die koue ketting, gegrond is en dat daar prominente temperatuur breke gedurende die uitvoer koue kettings van Clementines en Navel lemoene vanaf Citrusdal tot by die Newark hawe is. In ‘n globale mark wat toenemend kompeterend is, is dit belangrik vir produsente in die Citrusdalstreek om die kwessies wat hierdie studie identifiseer het aan te spreek, sodat hul kompeterend kan bly en aanhou om die hoë kwaliteit sitrus te lewer waarvoor die streek bekend is. Die voorstelle-hoofstuk verskraf moontlike oplossings vir die probleme wat die studie identifiseer het en beklemtoon dat voorkombare temperatuur breke elimineer moet word, terwyl onvoorkombare temperatuur breke minimeer moet word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107280
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