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An investigation into the causes and impacts of land degradation, and possible management strategies and mitigation measures in the Oshana region, Northern Namibia

dc.contributor.advisorMuller, J. I.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHamunyela, Nataliaen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-05T06:25:33Z
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-11T06:45:12Z
dc.date.available2019-11-05T06:25:33Z
dc.date.available2019-12-11T06:45:12Z
dc.date.issued2019-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107054
dc.descriptionThesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH SUMMARY : Land degradation is a complex phenomenon, and its relation to various impacts has attracted research from various disciplines. Many researchers concluded that the deterioration of the environment is mainly caused by human activities. Anthropogenic activities, which can lead to land degradation, are overgrazing, rapid increase in number of livestock, sand mining, climate change, deforestation, and population pressure. Many parts of Namibia are affected by land degradation, hence the purpose of this study. This study investigated the causes and impacts of land degradation in the Oshana region of Namibia. The research objectives of this study include an exploration of existing national legislation and policies directly or indirectly addressing land degradation. The research design adopted is a case study, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, and primary and secondary data. The study population comprised residents from the Oshana region, and a small subset of employees of the Namibian Ministry of Environment and Tourism, the Ministry of Agricultural Water and Forestry and the Ministry of Land Reform. Hundred questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents (both residents and officials) and out of these, 86 questionnaires were returned. The questionnaires to residents were distributed during the annual Ongwediva trade fair, using a random sampling method. The questionnaires distributed to officials used purposive sampling, focussing on relevant Ministries that deal with land degradation. The questionnaire comprised both closed and open-ended questions. Closed questions were analysed with Excel, and open-ended questions by thematically categorising similar concept. The literature review explored the extent of the problem, and the causes and impacts of land degradation. A review of Namibian policies identified a problem with coordination of legislation between departments, a lack of data for planning, and a lack of monitoring. The case study shows that the bigger portion of the Oshana region is communal land, and communal land rights and leaseholds are the most common land ownership models in the Oshana region. According to the respondents the major causes of land degradation in the region are climate change, overgrazing, population pressures, urbanisation and poor soil and low rainfall. These factors contribute a lot to the loss of fauna and flora, and desertification. The study also highlights sandmining as a more recent challenge in the region, which up to now has been uncontrolled. Although most respondents were aware of land degradation, they also felt that the local community is not empowered to deal with land degradation problems, nor does the community get together to address them. Only about 40% of the respondent felt that community members were involved in decision-making. They identified that land degradation policies require more public input in order to achieve land degradation goals. The respondents also stated that existing policies, laws, regulations, plans and programmes were not fully implemented, and felt the laws also needed changing to adapt to environmental conditions and to the specific context in Oshana. The respondents felt communal ownership of land should be encouraged, but that there should be a fairer system of land allocation, so that some people do not control large tracts of land, while others have very little land. They suggested solutions to the problem of land degradation, such as awareness campaigns, the enforcement of grazing management plans, policies about-revegetation of areas and the prevention of dual grazing (when people who controlled and fenced ‘private’ land, still let their cattle graze on the commonage). They also felt that limits should be placed on the number of livestock in each village, as currently there is no penalty for over stocking. Lastly, the study recommends that land degradation management strategies and mitigation measures be mainstreamed into all policies, which should be regularly amended every decade, as laws get outdated. New laws, policies and plans should combine both scientific and local knowledge, with more public participation. Better implementation of existing policies, laws, regulations and strategies is also needed, including better coordination between departments. Poverty and diversifying sustainable livelihoods should be addresses, as poverty is one of the reasons people overuse local resources.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Grond degradasie is 'n komplekse verskynsel, en die verhouding tot verskeie impakte het navorsing uit verskeie dissiplines gelok. Baie navorsers het bevind dat die agteruitgang van die omgewing hoofsaaklik deur menslike aktiwiteite veroorsaak word. Antropogeniese aktiwiteite wat tot grond degradasie kan lei, is oorbeweiding, vinnige toename in die aantal vee, sand-mynbou, klimaatsverandering, ontbossing en bevolkings-druk. Baie dele van Namibië word geraak deur grond degradasie, dus die doel van hierdie studie. Hierdie studie het die oorsake en impakte van grond degradasie in die Oshana-streek van Namibië eksplisiet ondersoek. Die navorsing doelwitte van hierdie studie sluit in 'n verkenning van bestaande nasionale wetgewing en beleid wat regstreeks of onregstreeks aan grond degradasie aandag gee. Die navorsingsontwerp wat aangeneem is, is 'n gevallestudie wat beide kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe metodes gebruik, sowel as primêre en sekondêre data. Die studie bevolking bestaan uit inwoners van die Oshana-streek, asook 'n klein deelversameling van werknemers van die Namibiese Ministerie van Omgewing en Toerisme, die Ministerie van Landbou, Water en Bosbou en die Ministerie van Grondhervorming. Honderde vraelyste is gebruik om data van die respondente (beide inwoners en beamptes) in te samel en daaruit is 86 vraelyste terug ontvang. Die vraelyste aan inwoners is tydens die jaarlikse Ongwediva handelskou uitgedeel, met behulp van 'n ewekansige steekproefmetode. Die vraelyste wat aan beamptes versprei is, het 'n doelbewuste steekproefneming gebruik, met die fokus op relevante ministeries wat met grond degradasie handel. Die vraelys het beide geslote en oop vrae ingesluit. Geslote vrae is geanaliseer met behulp van Excel, terwyl oop vrae geanaliseer is deur tematies soortgelyke konsepte saam te kategoriseer. Die literatuuroorsig het die omvang van die probleem ondersoek en wat die oorsake en impak van grond degradasie was. 'n Oorsig oor die Namibiese beleid het 'n probleem geïdentifiseer met die koördinering van wetgewing tussen departemente, 'n gebrek aan data vir basiese beplanning en 'n gebrek aan monitering. Die gevallestudie illustreer dat die groter gedeelte van die Oshana-streek gemeenskaplike grond is, en gemeenskaplike grondregte en huurkontrakte die algemeenste grondbesit modelle in die Oshanastreek is. Volgens die respondente is die belangrikste oorsake van grond degradasie in die streek, klimaatsverandering, oorbeweiding, bevolkings-druk, verstedeliking en swak grond en lae reënval. Hierdie faktore dra baie by tot die verlies van fauna en flora, sowel as tot verwoestyning. Die studie beklemtoon ook sand-mynbou as 'n meer onlangse uitdaging in die streek, wat tot nou toe nie beheer was nie. Alhoewel die meeste respondente bewus is van grond degradasie, het hulle ook gevoel dat die plaaslike gemeenskap nie gemagtig is om probleme met grond degradasie te hanteer nie. Die gemeenskap kom ook nie saam die uitdaging aan spreek nie. Slegs sowat 40% van die respondent het gevoel dat gemeenskapslede betrokke was by besluitneming. Hulle het bevind dat grond degradasie beleid meer openbare insette vereis om grond degradasie-doelwitte te bereik. Die respondente het ook verklaar dat bestaande beleide, wette, regulasies, planne en programme nie ten volle geïmplementeer word nie en het ook gevoel dat dit ook nodig was dat die wette moes verander om aan te pas by omgewings-omstandighede en die spesifieke konteks in Oshana. Die respondente het gemeen dat gemeenskaplike eienaarskap van grond aangemoedig moet word, maar dat daar 'n regverdiger stelsel van grondtoewysing moet wees, sodat sommige mense nie groot dele van die land beheer nie, terwyl ander baie min grond het nie. Hulle het oplossings voorgestel vir die probleem van grond degradasie, soos bewusmakingsveldtogte, die handhawing van weidings-bestuursplanne, beleid oor die herbeplanting van gebiede en die voorkoming van dubbele weiding (wanneer mense wat privaat grond beheer en omhein het, hulle vee steeds toelaat om te wei op die meentgrond). Hulle het ook gevoel dat daar perke op die aantal vee in elke dorp geplaas moet word, aangesien daar tans geen boete vir oorbeweiding is nie. Laastens beveel die studie aan dat grond degradasie bestuur strategieë en versagtingsmaatreëls in alle beleide opgeneem word, wat gereeld elke tien jaar gewysig moet word, aangesien wette verouder word. Nuwe wette, beleide en planne moet beide wetenskaplike en plaaslike kennis kombineer, met meer openbare deelname. Beter implementering van bestaande beleide, wette, regulasies en strategieë is ook nodig, insluitend beter koördinering tussen departemente. Armoede en diversifisering van volhoubare lewensbestaan moet aandag geniet, aangesien armoede een van die redes is waarom mense die plaaslike hulpbronne oorbenut.af_ZA
dc.format.extentxix, 105 pages ; illustrations, includes annexures
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
dc.subjectLand degradation -- Management -- Oshana (Namibia)en_ZA
dc.subjectLand degradation -- Causes -- Oshana (Namibia)en_ZA
dc.subjectLand degradation -- Environmental aspects -- Oshana (Namibia)en_ZA
dc.subjectUCTD
dc.titleAn investigation into the causes and impacts of land degradation, and possible management strategies and mitigation measures in the Oshana region, Northern Namibiaen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.description.versionMasters
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch University


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