Developing a performance management audit questionnaire
In this study the authors aim to develop and validate a Performance Management audit questionnaire. The audit questionnaire, consisting of 102 items, was completed by 626 South African managers and employees from eight organizations representing finance, commerce, industry and utility organizations. Items for the audit questionnaire, which was developed specifically for this study, were obtained from interviews with Performance Management facilitators, related literature and results from a survey on problems experienced with Performance Management. Items were categorized according to a systems model of Performance Management. Results from an item analysis and a series of factor analytic investigations provide limited confirmation that the Performance Management Audit Questionnaire (PMAQ) provides a reliable and content valid measure of the Performance Management domain as conceptualized by the systems model. Three second-order factors were identified, i.e. management processes, feedback, and linkages at various levels. Performance Management seems to emerge as a considerable force in both conceptually and operationally integrating various human resources related activities.