A strategic and technological framework for sustainable low-cost housing in South Africa

Rynhoud, Greg Beau (2019-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: With a vast majority of South Africans living in poverty, they are consequently unable to fulfil their basic needs. This includes the inability to provide adequate housing for themselves and their family. The only solution for most people is to wait for the government to provide them with low-cost housing. As a result, the government is charged with constructing countless homes. Therefore, the government commissioned low-cost housing frameworks, namely the Reconstruction and Development Plan, which comprises of policies, strategies and technologies. To ensure the construction of these dwellings have a positive effect on the environment, economy and community, it is imperative they be built sustainably. This investigation places South Africa within the context of global sustainability, as a developing country. Furthermore, it examines sustainability in the construction sector and develops an understanding of sustainable buildings. Thereafter, this investigation explores the demand for sustainable low-cost housing in South Africa, and determined there is an abundant need for housing with a high level of sustainability. To determine whether the existing frameworks perform satisfactorily, this investigation used Kayamandi, Stellenbosch as a case study to draw conclusions from. The case study provided a platform to investigate the existing strategic and technological frameworks prescribed for low-cost housing. These frameworks include the Reconstruction and Development Plan (RDP), the Integrated Development Plan (IDP) the strategy of from the Stellenbosch Municipality and the technological guidelines from the Sustainability Institute. To investigate the existing technological framework it was necessary to quantify its performance. This would require building-rating tools and assessment. After reviewing numerous methods, this investigation used a building-rating tool prescribed by the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA). Additionally, this investigation examined the literature on Life Cycle Assessments to determine the most efficient method to reduce the negative impacts buildings have on the environment. With the aid of the building-rating tool, it was possible to investigate the existing strategic and technological frameworks for low-cost housing in Kayamandi. After exploring the existing frameworks of the case study, it was possible to define and examine the shortcomings of the technologies and strategies used to construct low-cost housing. The measurement of the existing technological framework highlighted that it did not meet the standards of the GBCSA and needed improving. Furthermore, exploring the strategic framework revealed there were fundamental changes that need to occur. Subsequently, this aided in the formation of a new strategic and technological framework. Once the proposed new frameworks were developed they were compared to the existing ones. To assess the technological framework, the results of the existing and proposed frameworks were compared graphically. It was determined that the proposed framework out-performed the existing framework, meaning it achieved a higher level of sustainability with a similar cost structure and thus validating the effectiveness of the proposed framework. The proposed strategic framework addresses all the shortcomings of the existing framework with additions to further facilitate synergy between stakeholders, government and the people of Kayamandi. Thus, this investigation presents a proposed framework that aims at achieving and enabling long-term sustainability for constructing low-cost housing. Furthermore, it specifies an outline on the necessary actions needed to provide the impoverished people of South Africans with adequate homes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die groter meerderheid van Suid-Afrikaners lewe in armoede. Gevolglik kan meeste mense nie hulle basiese behoeftes bevreedig nie. Dit sluit die voorsiening van genoegsame behuising vir hulself en hulle familie in. Die enigste oplossing wat baie mense het is om te wag tot die regering hulle met lae koste behuising kan voorsien. Sodoende is dit die regering se plig om groot hoeveelhede lae koste behuising op te rig. Die regering het daarom ‘n lae koste behuising raamwerk, genaamd, die Heropbou- en Onwikkelingsprogram , wat uit beleide, strategiee en tegnologiee bestaan. Om te verseker dat die konstruksie van die wonings ‘n positiewe effek op die omgewing, ekonomie en gemeenskap het is volhoubaarheid ononderhandelbaar. Die ondersoek plaas Suid-Afrika, ‘n ontwikkelende land, binne die konteks van globale volhoubaarheid. Dit ondersoek volhoubaarheid in die konstruksie sektor en ontwikkel ‘n begrip vir volhoubare geboue. Die ondersoek kyk na die vraag vir lae koste behuising in Suid-Afrika en stel vas dat daar ‘n oorvloedige nood vir behuising met ‘n hoe vlak van volhoubaarheid is. Om vas te stel of die huidige raamwerk beveredigend werk het die ondersoek ‘n gevallestudie, Kayamandi in Stellenbosch, gebruik om tot gevlogtrekkings te kom. Die gevallestudie het as ‘n platform gedien om die huidige stretegiese en tegnologiese raamwerke, vir lae koste behuising in Suid-Afrika, te ondersoek. Om die huidige tegnologiese raamwerk te ondersoek was dit nodig om die produktiwiteit te kwantifiseer. Om dit te kon doen was ‘n gebou graderings hulpmiddel gebruik. Daar was vasgestel dat die beste hulpmiddel vir die ondersoek die voorgeskrewe gebou graderings hulpmiddel van die Groen Gebou Raad van Suid-Afrika (GBCSA) was. Die ondersoek het ook die literatuur van die Lewens Siklus Assesering besturdeer om die mees effektiewe metode vas te stel om sodoende die negatiewe impak wat geboue op die omgewing het te verminder. Met behulp van die gebou graderings hulpmiddel was dit moontlik om huidige strategiese en tegnologiese raamwerke, vir lae koste behuising in Kayamandi, te ondersoek. Dit was sodoende moontlik om die tekortkominge van huidige tegnologiee en stratigiee vas te stel wat in die lae koste behuising raamwerk gebruik word. Die meting van bestaande tegnologiese raamwerk het beklemtoon dat dit nie die standaarde van die GBCSA behaal nie en drasties verbetering nodig het. Daar was ook openbaar dat die strategiese raamwerk kardinale verandering benodig. Daaropvolgend, het dit die nuwe strategiese en tegnologiese raamwerk help vorm. Die voorgestelde nuwe raamweke was met die huidige raamwerke vergelyk. Om die tegnologiese raamwerk te assesseer was die huidige en voorgestelde raamwerke grafies vergelyk. Daar was vasgestel dat die voorgestelde raamwerk die huidige raamwerk ver verbysteek. Die voorgestelde raamwerk het ‘n hoer vlak van volhoubaarheid bereik met ‘n soortgelyke koste raamwerk. Hierdie vergelyking bevesetig dus die effektiwiteit van die voorgestelde raamwerk. Die voorgestelde strategiese raamwerk raak alle tekortkominge van die huidige raamwerk, met toevoeging tot verder fasilitering van die samewerking tussen die belanghebbendes, regering en inwoners van Kayamandi. Die ondersoek stel ‘n raamwerk voor wat streef om lang termyn volhoubaarheid vir die konstruksie van lae koste behuising in staat te stel, asook verarmde mense van Suid-Afrika met voldoende huise te voorsien.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/106198
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