An assessment of the potential of edible insect consumption in reducing human nutritional deficiencies in South Africa while considering food and nutrition security aspects.

Lategan, Anja (2019-04)

Thesis (MScFoodSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Between 2012 and 2014, more than 2 000 new cases of severe malnutrition in South Africa have been reported. Staple food products are viewed as having insufficient micronutrient contents and limiting amino acids (lysine, tryptophan and threonine). Therefore, in following a monotonous diet of maize and wheat products, the risk of micronutrient deficiencies increases. Even after mandatory fortification of staple food products in South Africa in 2003, high levels of micronutrient deficiencies still exist. In this research assignment, the potential of edible insects frequently consumed in South Africa, in ameliorating South Africa’s most prevalent nutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A and iodine) was assessed. The primary data collection method consisted of searching databases and identifying and critically assessing existing literature. The majority of edible insects contained favourable nutrient contents, except for iodine, vitamin A and tryptophan, which were limited. The katydid (Ruspolia differens), jewel beetle (Sternocera orissa), African thief ant (Carebara vidua) and mopane worm (Gonimbrasia belina) were identified as insects containing significant amounts of micronutrients. The adult Ruspolia differens had the highest iron content (117.2 mg.100g-1 product), more than brown bread flour (2.5 mg.100-1 product). The adult of Sternocera orissa provides half of the RDA of zinc when consuming 10.6 g product. Consuming 58.7 g Carebara vidua in the adult phase, will result in 50% of the RDA of folic acid being met. Ruspolia differens and Gonimbrasia belina were also identified as having favourable lysine, tryptophan and threonine contents. Ruspolia differens and Gonimbrasia belina contain 91.3 mg and 44.4 mg lysine per gram protein. Gonimbrasia belina larvae further contains a tryptophan content of 29.6 mg g-1 protein, whereas favourable a threonine content has been established in Ruspolia differens (53.3 mg.g-1 protein). The Kjeldahl method was still the preferred method for protein determination of edible insects. Due to the limited amount of alternative methods utilised, no conclusions were made on whether the Kjeldahl methods leads to an overestimation of protein or if amino acid analysis provides more reliable results. Furthermore, other external factors, including geographical area, processing method, chitin content and Kp adjustment, also affects edible insects’ protein content. An increase of 33% in the edible insect market is projected between 2018 – 2022 when compared to every US$1 billion in the global meat market. This is still miniscule compared to the global meat market. Standardising food safety systems and incorporating insects into well-known products, have been proposed as promoters for edible insect market growth. Whole termites were the most expensive protein source when compared to chicken breast fillets, French polony, beef mince and chicken livers. This results in excluding a majority of the population, who resides in urban areas and does not have access to harvesting sites. This research assignment met the objectives in accentuating the favourable nutrient contents of edible insects and the potential to assist in reducing South Africa’s most prevalent nutrient deficiencies. Concerns and gaps however exist, but this assignment provides the platform for future research to focus on conducting studies in South Africa to determine the nutritional content of edible insects, standardise external factors, and to determine the protein content through various methods. Edible insects in South Africa has endless potential in alleviating the food insecurity.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tussen 2012 and 2014, is daar meer as 2 000 nuwe gevalle van ernstige wanvoeding in Suid-Afrika gerapporteer. Stapelvoedselprodukte word beskou as onvoldoende in mikronutriëntinhoud en beperkende aminosure (insluitend lisien, triptofaan en treonien). 'n Beperkte dieet van mielie- en koringprodukte verhoog dus die risiko van mikronutriënt tekorte. Selfs nadat die verpligte fortifisering van stapelvoedselprodukte in Suid-Afrika ingestel is in 2003, word daar steeds hoë vlakke van mikronutriënt tekorte gevind. In hierdie navorsingsopdrag is eetbare insekte wat gereeld in Suid-Afrika verbruik word, se potensiaal om ‘n verbetering aan te bring in Suid-Afrika se mees algemene nutriënttekorte (yster, sink, folaat, vitamien A en jodium), ondersoek. Databasis soektogte om bestaande literatuur te identifisieer en krities te assesseer was die primêre data insamelingsmetode. Die oorgrote meerderheid van eetbare insekte het ‘n gunstige nutriëntinhoud, behalwe vir ‘n beperkte vlakke van jodium, vitamien A en triptofaan. Die katydid (Ruspolia differens), kewer (Sternocera orissa), mier (Carebara vidua) en mopanie wurm (Gonimbrasia belina) is geïdentifiseer as insekte met ‘n beduidende mikronutriëntinhoud. Die volwasse Ruspolia differens het die hoogste ysterinhoud (117.2 mg.100g-1 produk), meer as bruinbroodmeel (2.5 mg.100-1 produk). Die volwasse Sternocera orissa verskaf die helfte van die aanbevolle daaglikse toelating (ADT) vir sink wanneer 10.6 g produk ingeneem word. Die inname van 58.7 g Carebara vidua in die volwasse fase sal 50% van die ADT vir foliensuur verskaf. Ruspolia differens en Gonimbrasia belina is ook geïdentifiseer met ‘n gunstige lisien-, triptofaan- en treonieninhoud. Ruspolia differens en Gonimbrasia belina bevat 91.3 mg en 44.4 mg lisien per gram proteïene. Die Gonimbrasia belina larva het verder 'n triptofaaninhoud van 29.6 mg g-1 proteïene, terwyl 'n gunstige treonieninhoud in Ruspolia differens (53.3 mg.g-1 proteïen) vasgestel is. Die Kjeldahl metode word nogsteeds verkies om die proteïeninhoud van eetbare insekte te bepaal. Vanweë die beperkte hoeveelheid alternatiewe metodes wat gebruik was, kon geen gevolgtrekkings gemaak word of Kjeldahl metodes tot 'n oorskatting van proteïeninhoud lei, en, of aminosuuranalise meer betroubare resulate lewer nie. Verder, eksterne faktore soos byvoorbeeld geografiese area, prosesseringsmetode, chitieninhoud en Kp-aanpassing, beïnvloed ook eetbare insekte se proteïeninhoud. 'n Aansienlike toename van 33% in die eetbare insektemark word tussen 2018 en 2022 verwag in vergelyking met elke US$ 1 miljard in die globale vleismark. Dit is egter steeds gering in vergelyking met die globale vleismark. Standaardisering van voedselveiligheidstelsels en byvoeging van insekte in bekende produkte, word voorgestel om die aanvraag vir eetbare insekte te laat toeneem. Heel termiete is ‘n duurder proteïenbron in vergelyking met hoenderborsfilette, Franse polonie, gemaalde beesvleis en hoenderlewers. Dit lei daartoe dat 'n groot hoeveelheid van die bevolking uitgeskakel word, veral diegene wie woonagtig is in stede en nie toegang het tot versamelingsareas nie. Hierdie navorsingsopdrag het die doelwitte bereik om die gunstige nutriëntinhoud van eetbare insekte te beklemtoon en het die potensiaal om Suid-Afrika se mees prominente voedingstoftekorte te help verminder. Bekommernisse en gapings bestaan egter steeds, maar hierdie opdrag bied die platform vir toekomstige navorsing. Verdere studies kan spesifiek daarop fokus om die voedingswaarde van eetbare insekte in Suid-Afrika te bepaal, eksterne faktore te standaardiseer en verskillende metodes te gebruik om die proteïeninhoud te bepaal. Eetbare insekte in Suid-Afrika beskik oor eindelose potensiaal om die voedselsekuriteit te verbeter.

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