The development of a rapid immunosensor for the quantification of insulin

Van Dyk, Carel Christiaan (2019-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch Univeristy, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a serious, chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin (in type 1 diabetes), or when the body cannot use the insulin, produced by the pancreas, e ectively (in type 2 diabetes). Measuring and diagnosing type 2 diabetes is currently performed by conventional immunoassay techniques which require sophisticated equipment, are extremely time consuming and expensive. This increases the need for a rapid point-of-care device which will enable diabetic patients to monitor insulin levels on a more regular basis and help with the compliance in following strict diets and also improve overall medical healthcare. Immunosensors are compact, analytical devices that detect and measure a specific antigen (e.g. proteins) by using biological receptors, such as antibodies, and specific transducing mechanisms to generate a measurable signal. The Organic Electrochemical Transistor (OECT) has been developed as a promising alternative to conventional immunoassays. The electrochemical signal produced by OECTbased immunosensors is generated as a result of the antigen-antibody binding. OECT-based immunosensors present real-time, rapid results and exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity towards the antigen. In this project an unique inexpensive rapid OECT-based immunosensor was developed, capable of detecting and quantitatively measuring insulin. As part of the research a thorough literature review and background study was undertaken.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Diabetes is 'n ernstige, chroniese siekte wat voorkom wanneer die pankreas nie genoeg insulien produseer nie (in die geval van tipe 1-diabetes), of wanneer die liggaam nie die insulien wat deur die pankreas geproduseer word, e ektief gebruik nie (in die geval van tipe 2-diabetes). Die meting en diagnose van tipe 2-diabetes word tans uitgevoer deur konvensionele immunotoetse wat geso stikeerde toerusting benodig, uiters tydrowend en duur is. Dit verhoog die behoefte aan 'n sorgtoestel wat diabetes in staat stel om insulienvlakke op 'n gereelde basis te monitor, en sodoende te help met die nakoming van 'n streng dieet en ook algemene mediese gesondheidsorg te verbeter. Immunosensors is kompakte, analitiese toestelle wat 'n spesi eke antigeen (bv. proteïene) kan opspoor en meet deur biologiese reseptore, soos teenliggaampies, en spesifieke opneemmeganismes te gebruik om 'n meetbare sein te genereer. Die Organiese Elektrochemiese Transistor (OECT) is ontwikkel as 'n belowende alternatief vir die konvensionele immunotoets. Die elektrochemiese sein wat deur OECT-gebaseerde immunosensors gegenereer word, word gegenereer as gevolg van die antigeen-teenliggaambinding. OECT-gebaseerde immunosensors bied vinnige resultate en vertoon hoë sensitiwiteit en selektiwiteit teenoor die antigeen. In hierdie projek is 'n unieke, koste-effektiewe OECT-gebaseerde immunosensor ontwikkel wat in staat is om insulien te meet en vinnig te kwantifiseer. As deel van die navorsing is 'n deeglike literatuuroorsig en agtergrondstudie onderneem.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/106055
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