Women, teaching and leadership in 1 Timothy 2:11-15 : a rhetorical-critical study, with reference to Angola

David, Teresa Chateia (2019-04)

Thesis (MTh)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The perceptions on the role of women regarding teaching and leadership in 1 Timothy 2:11-15 offer numerous challenges regarding its interpretative history. The central contested aspect is that the text appears to allow women to learn but forbids them to teach or to have authority over men. In Angola, if not in most African societies where there is a need for the empowerment of servants and for discipleship for the Kingdom of God, one is confused about how to understand this text as authoritatively forbidding women to take the roles of teaching and leadership. This study was undertaken on the assumption that the prohibition of women in 1 Timothy 2:11-15 was written to respond to a specific situation in Ephesus, regarding false teachings. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the use of 1 Timothy 2:11-15 by the Evangelical churches in Angola on the way they silence women. It seeks to investigate the interpretation of the verses from the perspective of the church leadership. The text challenges the contemporary readers because notwithstanding their literal interpretation, they express fundamental awareness of the social-cultural perception of gender importance and their respective roles. The literary context of the text was surveyed by means of a rhetorical-critical method in order to comprehend the passage in terms of its literal and social context. The text was analysed verse by verse and the concept of silence and submission of women in the first century was explained. It is argued that the writer of the letter arranged his arguments in a way that would most likely convince his audience to follow what he considers the sound doctrine for the church. The study, Women, Teaching and Leadership in 1 Timothy 2:11-15 comprises six chapters. Chapter 1 offers a short outline of the purpose of the study, research problems and questions as well as the hypothesis of this thesis, in combination with the methodology. In Chapter 2 the text of 1 Timothy 2:11-15 is examined exegetically through a close interpretation of the text, with emphasis on principle concepts that function within the text, and are believed to be aimed crucially at the resultant debate on women, teaching and leadership in 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in the setting first Mediterranean World. Chapter 3 elucidates the Social, Historical and Political context of 1 Timothy 2:11-15. It looks at the first century's social context, which formed the life background of 1 Timothy. It analyses the household within the Greco-Roman empire, and women’s roles according to gender distribution, and how the church as the household of God has modelled itself along the same lines. Chapter 4 analyses gendered rhetoric in 1 Timothy 2:11-15. It seeks to explore implicitly gendered rhetoric in the text and to discuss the diverse issues involved in interpretation as they relate to gender roles in that context. Rhetoric as an art of persuasion in its context, makes use of gender language to refer to the cultural constructs of masculinity and femininity constructed in relation to biological sex, particularly, culture. Chapter 5 enquires about 1 Timothy 2:11-15 as a challenge for being a woman in the church in Angola. It attempts to apply the role of “Women, Teaching and Leadership in 1 Timothy 2:11-15” to the Angolan context. The chapter engages with some analysis done by scholars and uses two sermons from pastors in Angola as an illustration on how the text is interpreted among evangelicals. Chapter 6 connects the discussions of the chapters together and explains concisely the potential significance and influence of women, in teaching and leadership in 1 Timothy 2:11-15 for the suggested context of Christianity today.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Persepsies oor die rol van vroue ten opsigte van onderrig en leierskap in 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 skep talle uitdagings oor die interpretasiegeskiedenis heen. Die sentrale betwiste aspek is dat die teks vroue skynbaar toelaat om te leer, maar hulle verbied hulle om mans te onderrig of oor hulle gesag uit te oefen. In Angola, indien nie ook in die meeste samelewings in Afrika nie, waar bemagtiging van diensknegte en dissipelskap vir die Koninkryk van God nodig is, is mens verward oor hoe om hierdie teks te verstaan as 'n gesaghebbende verbod op vroue om die rol van onderrig en leierskap in te neem. Hierdie studie is onderneem met die veronderstelling dat die verbod op vroue in 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 geskryf is as 'n reaksie op 'n spesifieke situasie in Efese met betrekking tot valse leerstellings. Daarom is die primêre doel van hierdie studie om die gebruik van 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 deur die Evangeliese kerke in Angola te evalueer op die manier waarop hulle vroue daarmee stilmaak. Dit poog om die interpretasie van die verse uit die oogpunt van die kerkleierskap te ondersoek. Die teks daag die hedendaagse lesers uit omdat hulle, ondanks hul letterlike interpretasie, fundamentele bewustheid vertoon oor die sosiale-kulturele persepsie van geslagsbelang en hul onderskeie rolle. Die literêre konteks van die teks is ondersoek. Deur middel van 'n retoriese kritiese metode is gepoog om die gedeelte te verstaan in terme van die letterkundige en sosiale konteks. Die teks is vers vir vers geanaliseer en die konsep van stilte en voorlegging van vroue in die eerste eeu is verduidelik. Daar word geargumenteer dat die skrywer van die brief sy argumente op so 'n manier gestruktureer het om die gehoor op mees waarskynlike gronde te oortuig om te volg wat hy dink die goeie leerstelling vir die kerk is. Die studie, Vroue, Onderrig en Leierskap in 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 bestaan uit ses hoofstukke. Hoofstuk 1 bied 'n kort uiteensetting van die doel van die studie, navorsingsprobleme en -vrae asook die hipotese van hierdie verhandeling, in kombinasie met die metodologie. In Hoofstuk 2 word die teks van 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 eksegeties ondersoek deur 'n noukeurige interpretasie van die teks, met die klem op sleutelkonsepte wat binne die teks funksioneer, en van kritieke belang beskou word vir die voortvloeiende debat oor vroue, onderrig en leierskap in 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 in die omgewing van die eerste Mediterreense Wêreld. Hoofstuk 3 belig die sosiale, historiese en politieke konteks van 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15. Dit kyk na die eerste-eeuse sosiale konteks wat die lewensagtergrond van 1 Timoteus uitgemaak het. Dit analiseer die huishouding binne die Grieks-Romeinse Ryk, asook die rol van vroue volgens geslagsverspreiding, en hoe die kerk as die huishouding van God op dieselfde model gestruktueer is. Hoofstuk 4 analiseer die geslagsgerigte retoriek in 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 ge. Dit poog om implisiete geslagsretoriek in die teks te ondersoek en om die uiteenlopende aangeleenthede wat met interpretasie verband hou, te bespreek, aangesien dit betrekking het op geslagsrolle in daardie konteks. Retoriek as die kuns van oorreding in daardie konteks, maak gebruik van geslagtaal om te verwys na die kulturele konstruksies van manlikheid en vroulikheid wat in verband staan met die biologiese geslag, veral die kultuur. Hoofstuk 5 bevraagteken 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 en die uitdaging om vrou in die kerk in Angola te wees. Dit wend ʼn poging aan om die rol van 'Vroue, Onderrig en Leierskap in 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15' in die Angolese konteks toe te pas. Die hoofstuk sluit 'n analise van preke van twee pastore in Angola in, ter illustrasie oor hoe die teks onder evangeliese interpretasies geïnterpreteer word, in. Hoofstuk 6 verbind die besprekings van die hoofstukke en verduidelik kortliks die potensiële betekenis en invloed van vroue in onderrig en leierskap in 1 Timoteus 2: 11-15 vir die voorgestelde konteks oor die Christendom vandag.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/106008
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