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A potential source of undiagnosed Legionellosis : Legionella growth in domestic water heating systems in South Africa

dc.contributor.authorStone, W.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorLouw, T. M.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorGakingo, G. K.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorNieuwoudt, M. J.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorBooysen, M. J.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-09T13:02:30Z
dc.date.available2019-01-09T13:02:30Z
dc.date.issued2018-12-02
dc.identifier.citationStone, W., et al. 2018. A potential source of undiagnosed Legionellosis : Legionella growth in domestic water heating systems in South Africa. Energy for Sustainable Development, 48:130-138, doi:10.1016/j.esd.2018.12.001
dc.identifier.issn0973-0826 (online)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.1016/j.esd.2018.12.001
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105286
dc.descriptionCITATION: Stone, W., et al. 2018. A potential source of undiagnosed Legionellosis : Legionella growth in domestic water heating systems in South Africa. Energy for Sustainable Development, 48:130-138, doi:10.1016/j.esd.2018.12.001.
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at https://www.sciencedirect.com
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Legionella is a genus of pathogenic bacterial mesophiles that cause a range of diseases collectively referred to as Legionellosis, with immunocompromised individuals being particularly susceptible. Water heaters, a potential domestic niche for these pathogens, are heavy energy consumers, causing cost-sensitive users to employ energy-saving initiatives, such as scheduling and lower temperature set points. However, lower heated water temperatures allow Legionella to ourish. This paper uses computational uid dynamics modelling to show that the pipes downstream of a horizontal electric water heater provide an environment that is conducive to Legionella growth, not the heater itself. The presence of Legionella in water heaters is established through water sampled from ve in- eld water heaters, of which the temperatures and heating schedules are known. Microbiological techniques (PCR and weight-based qRT-PCR) are used to assess Legionella and L. pneumophila presence at point-of-use taps. A model is used to determine the potential infection rate from these concentrations, demonstrating that undiagnosed Legionellosis infection is likely. In low- and middleincome countries, like South Africa, misdiagnosis of Legionellosis may be common due to the shadow cast by HIV and TB prevalence.en_ZA
dc.description.urihttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0973082618310251
dc.format.extent29 pagesen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherElsevieren_ZA
dc.subjectElectric water heatersen_ZA
dc.subjectLegionnaires' diseaseen_ZA
dc.subjectWater heatersen_ZA
dc.titleA potential source of undiagnosed Legionellosis : Legionella growth in domestic water heating systems in South Africaen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.description.versionPreprint
dc.rights.holderAuthors retain copyrighten_ZA


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