’n Ondersoek na graad 4-leerders, met IsiXhosa as Huistaal, se leerpraktyke van Afrikaans Eerste Addisionele Taal in ’n meertalige konteks: ’n Gevallestudie

Nel, Jana (2018-12)

Thesis (MEd)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT : The fundamental principles for equal education dictate that every learner will have equal access to education; no language will be directly or indirectly used as the dominant or as discriminatory language and multilingualism will be encouraged (Heugh 1995:45 in Heugh, Siegrühn & Plüddemann 1995). This investigation was conducted due to the vast number of learners studying Afrikaans First Additional Language (FAL) while their lingual capabilities were in reality on a third, fourth or even fifth language level. Myburg, Poggenpoel and Van Rensburg (2004:573) go on to write that it is a common occurrence in South African schools that teaching and learning is primarily conducted in the learners’ second or third language. This means that learners receive their education in a language that is not their home language. This tendency is one of the reasons for the challenging education system in South Africa. This investigation focuses on the learning practices of Afrikaans FAL for grade 4 IsiXhosa home language learners with an additional involvement of grade 4 Shona and French-speaking learners. The emphasis is on the learning practices of learning a new language. This investigation will contribute to other research and especially to the skills of teachers to ensure successful facilitation of learning. The learning practices in the classroom should be implemented in such a way that every learner will achieve success within their own learning capabilities. Language is thus important in all learners’ learning practices. The purpose of this research is to investigate the learning practices of Afrikaans FAL of grade 4 IsiXhosa home language speakers. Similarities between learning Afrikaans for grade 4 Xhosa, Shona and French-speaking learners were discovered. Furthermore, the analysis of the challenges as well as most important positive factors relating to the learning practices of Afrikaans FAL for grade 4 Xhosa, Shona and French-speaking learners took place. This research embraces additive multilingualism encompassing both the spoken and the written literacy forms of language within a multilingual school context. A case study with a qualitative method with some considerations of quantitative data was used as the primary research methodology allowing for the provision of multiple resources to conduct a comprehensive analysis. The following methods were used in this case study: a thorough literature study focusing on Piaget’s (1953) cognitive development theory and Vygotsky’s (1978) social constructivist theory on language acquisition as well as the research of Cummins (1984 to the present) regarding second language acquisition were investigated. The researcher visited the school over a period of six months where observations were conducted, interviews with the learners, their parents and the Afrikaans teacher took place and the learners’ work books were used as reference. Although Afrikaans can be heard in the Western Cape daily, it remains a third or fourth language for many South Africans, as well as immigrant learners. Despite Afrikaans being taught as a second language, it is not heard often outside the class and school context. The Xhosa, Shona and French-speaking learners’ micro- (family) and exo- (community) systems do not have a solid comprehension of Afrikaans. At home there is a lack of support for learners with Afrikaans. Learners struggle with comprehension subjects, for example Afrikaans FAL, due to their language barrier. The results of this investigation indicate that Afrikaans as a second language can be positively studied when the following principles are applied by third of fourth language speakers. Afrikaans should be used more outside the school and classroom context. Learning and support groups in the classroom will make a positive contribution to the teaching and learning of Afrikaans FAL. Teachers should facilitate more sensory and practical learning experiences and parents’ Afrikaans capabilities should be enhanced. It is important to involve Afrikaans in many facets to manage the realistic expectations within South Africa’s multilingual and multicultural context. This research recommends that teachers should acquire fundamental communication skills of the languages mostly spoken in the province that they teach. The National Department of Basic Education should also devote more time to language structures and conventions in the CAPS curriculum. The results of this research can also be further applied elsewhere in the country and possibly within an international context due to the global issue of learners learning a second language at third, fourth or even fifth language level. If the recommendations of this research are applied by the learners who took part in this investigation, their ability to comprehend Afrikaans as a first additional language can be addressed effectively.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die basiese beginsels vir gelyke onderwys is dat elke leerder gelyke toegang tot die onderwys moet geniet; geen taal moet direk of indirek as dominant of diskriminerend gebruik word nie en meertaligheid moet aangemoedig word (Heugh 1995:45 in Heugh, Siegrühn & Plüddemann 1995). Hierdie ondersoek word onderneem vanweë die groot getal leerders wat Afrikaans Eerste Addisionele Taal (EAT) aanleer terwyl dit egter hul derde of vierde of selfs vyfde taal is. Myburg, Poggenpoel en Van Rensburg (2004:573) skryf dat onderrig en leer in ’n tweede of derde taal ’n algemene verskynsel in Suid-Afrikaanse skole geword het. Dit beteken dat leerders onderrig ontvang in ’n taal wat nie hul huistaal is nie. Hierdie tendens kan as een van die redes vir Suid-Afrika se uitdagende onderwysstelsel gesien word. Hierdie ondersoek se fokus is op die leerpraktyke van Afrikaans EAT vir graad 4- Xhosasprekende leerders sowel as die betrokkenheid van Shona- en Franssprekende leerders. Daar word klem gelê op die leerpraktyke, met betrekking tot die aanleer van ’n nuwe taal, wat vir ander navorsers, en veral onderwysers, ’n bydrae tot onderrigpraktyke kan lewer sodat die fasilitering van leer suksesvol kan plaasvind. Die leerpraktyke in die klaskamer behoort van so ’n aard te wees dat alle leerders sukses met hul eie leervermoëns kan behaal. Taal is dus belangrik in alle leerders se leerpraktyke. Hierdie navorsing het die leerpraktyke van Afrikaans EAT van graad 4-Xhosasprekende leerders ondersoek. Ooreenkomste tussen hoe ’n graad 4-Xhosaleerder en ’n graad 4-leerder vanaf ’n ander Afrikaland (Shona- en Franssprekend) Afrikaans aanleer, is ontdek. Die vernaamste uitdagings en die belangrikste positiewe faktore wat graad 4-Xhosa-, Shona- en Franssprekende leerders se leerpraktyke met betrekking tot Afrikaans beïnvloed, is deur die navorser geanaliseer. Hierdie navorsing wil juis addisionele meertaligheid omhels, sodat die omvattende gesproke en geskrewe vorm van geletterdheid in die meertalige skoolkonteks aangemoedig kan word. ’n Gevallestudie as kwalitatiewe metode saam met kwantitatiewe databronne is as navorsingsmetodologie gebruik aangesien dit ’n vollediger analise gee. ’n Verskeidenheid van metodes is in hierdie gevallestudie gebruik: ’n deeglike literatuurstudie van Piaget (1953) se teorie van kognitiewe ontwikkeling en Vygotsky (1978) se sosiaalkonstruktivistiese taalverwerwingsteorie asook die navorsing van Cummins (1984 tot op hede) rakende tweedetaalaanleer, is aangebied. Die navorser het die skool oor ’n tydperk van ses maande besoek waar waarnemings gemaak is. Daar het sy onderhoude met die leerders, hul ouers en die Afrikaansonderwyser gevoer en bewyse van die leerders se boeke gebruik is. Alhoewel Afrikaans daagliks in die Wes-Kaap gehoor word, is dit vir talle Suid-Afrikaanse en immigrante-leerders ’n derde of vierde taal. Alhoewel Afrikaans op skool as tweede taal aangebied word, word dit nie gereeld buite die klas- en skoolkonteks gebruik nie. Die mikro- (familie) en eksosisteem (gemeenskap) van Xhosa-, Shona- en Franssprekende leerders het nie ’n goeie begrip van Afrikaans nie. Tuis is daar ’n gebrek aan ondersteuning vir leerders met Afrikaans. Gevolglik sukkel leerders met begripsvakke soos Afrikaans EAT, as gevolg van hierdie taalgrens. Die resultate van hierdie ondersoek toon dat Afrikaans as ’n tweede taal deur derde- of vierdetaalsprekers positief aangeleer kan word indien Afrikaans meer buite die klas- en skoolkonteks beoefen word. Leer- en ondersteuningsgroepies in die klaskamer sal ’n positiewe bydrae tot die onderrig en leer van Afrikaans EAT lewer. Onderwysers moet meer sensoriese en praktiese leer fasiliteer en ouers se vaardighede in Afrikaans kan bevorder word. Dit is belangrik om Afrikaans in talle fasette te betrek en dat realistiese verwagtinge, met Suid-Afrika se meertalige en multikulturele konteks, geskep word. Hierdie navorsing beveel aan dat onderwysers basiese kommunikasievaardighede van die mees gesproke tale in die provinsie waar hulle onderrig, sal aanleer. Die Nasionale Departement van Basiese Onderwys behoort ook meer tyd te bestee aan taalstruktuur en -konvensies in die KABV-kurrikulum. Die resultate van hierdie navorsing kan ook elders in die land en in die wêreld gebruik word omdat dit ’n globale kwessie is dat baie leerders ’n tweede taal, op derde- of selfs vierde- of vyfdetaalvlak moet aanleer. Afrikaans kan meer effektief as ’n eerste addisionele taal aangeleer word indien die aanbevelings van hierdie navorsing toegepas word.

SESIXHOSA ISISHWANKATHELO : Imigomo ephambili yokulingana ngokomgangatho wemfundo unqonqozisa ukuba wonke umfundi uya kuxhamla kumathuba emfundo ngokulinganayo; akukho lulwimi luya kusetyenziswa ngqo kungenjalo ngokungangqala ngqo njengolo longamela ezinye iilwimi okanye lucalu-calulwe, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kweelwimi ngeelwimi kokukhuthazwa. (Heugh 1995:45 in Heugh, Siegrühn & Plüddemann 1995). Olu phando lwenziwe ngenxa yabafundi abaninzi abafunda i-Afrikaans njengoLwimi lokuQala oloNgezelelweyo (LQN) ekubeni bona ngenene bekwinqanaba lesithathtu, lesine, nkqu nelesihlanu. U-Myburg, Poggenpoel and Van Rensburg (2004:573) uyayibika into yokuba ivamile kwizikolo zaseMzantsi-Afrika into yokuba ukufundiswa nokufunda kuqhubeke ngolwimi lwesibini okanye lwesithathu lwabafundi. Le nto ithetha ukuba abafundi bazuza imfundo ngolwimi olungelulo olwasekhaya. Esi siqhelo sesinye sezizathu ezinika umceli-mngeni kwinkqubo yemfundo yaseMzantsi. Injongo yolu phando nokutsola kwalo kuthe ngqo kwindlela nezakhono zokufunda i-Afrikaans LQN nabafundi abakwiBakala 4 abathetha isiXhosa ekhaya, ze ke iphinde ibandakanye noogxa babo abantetho zisisiShona nesiFrench. Eyona nto iphambili kukujonga amaqhinga abawasebenzisayo ukufunda ulwimi olutsha. Igalelo lolu phando lelokuba nefuthe kolunye uphando, ingakumbi olo lumayela nezakhono zootitshala ukuncedisa abafundi ukuba bafunde ngempumelelo. oluphando eklasini kumele lwenzeke ngendlela yokuba wonke umfundi kwigumbi lokufundela afunde ngendlela elula kuye aze kuphumelela. Ngoko ke ulwimi lubalulekile kuzo zonke iinkalo namaqhinga okufunda ngokunjalo. Iziphumo zidandalazisa indlela ezifanayo zabafundi bantetho isisiXhosa, isiShona nesiFrench abafunda ngayo i-Afrikaans. Emva koko uhlalutyo lwemiceli-mngeni nemiba enefuthe elincomekayo mayela nemacetyana asetyenziswa ngabafundi ukufunda olu lwimi lwasemzini i-Afrikaans LQN kwiBakala 4. Le nto ithetha ukuba olu phando lwanga usetyenziso lweelwimi ngeelwimi ngendlela enegalelo elihle ekufundeni, inyathela kwilitherasi yolwimi yokuthethwayo neyokubhalwayo kwisikolo apha kuthee thantalala abantwana abathetha iilwimi ezahlukeneyo kwamawabo. Uhlobo lophando olujongene neqaqobana olunyathela nzulu umba othile lusetyenziswe njengendlela ephambili yokuphanda ngenxa yokuba kusetyenziswe uluvo lotoliko ngokwengqiqo, oluvumela izixhobo ezininzi ezahlukeneyo sisetyenziswe kuhlalutyo. Ezi ndlela zilandelayo zisetyenzisiwe kule case study. Uncwadi olungqale kwithiyori yokuphuhla kwamanqanaba okwakha ulwazi ka-Piaget (1953) neka-Vygotsky’s (1978) yolwakhiwo lolwazi oluzuzwa ekufundeni okuthathela ingqalelo intlalo yoluntu nokusingqongileyo kwakunye nekaCummins (1984 uza kuthi ga ngoku) mayela nokufundwa kolwimi luvelelwe nzulu. Umpandi utyelele isikolo kangangesithuba seenyanga ezintandathu ebukele okwenzeka kumagumbi okufundela, esenza udliwano-ndlebe nabafundi, abazali kwakunye netitshala yeAfrikaans kananjalo neencwadi zabafundi. Nangona i-Afrikaans ilulwimi oluxhaphakileyo mihla le eNtsona-Koloni, ithe rhoqo ukuba lulwimi lwesithathu okanye lwesine kwabanye abemi baseMzantsi-Afrika kwakunye nabafundi abavela kumazwe angaphandle. Nangona iAfrikaans ifundiswa njengoLwimi lwesibini, kunqabile ukuba ubani ayive isetyenziswa ngaphandle kwegumbi lokufundela nangaphanya wamasango esikolo. Iimeko zentlalo ezincinci ezisondeleyo (usapho) nezangaphandle ezithee gabalala (uluntu jikelele) azinasiseko someleleyo zokwazi i-Afrikaans. Ekhaya akukho nkxaso yaneleyo yabafundi be-Afrikaans. Abafundi bayasokola kwizifundo ezifuna ukuqondisisa, Umzekelo i-Afrikaans LQN ngenxa yesithintelo esilulwimi lokufundisa nokufunda. Iziphumo zolu phando zibonisa ukuba i-Afrikaans njengoLwimi lwesisbini ingafundwa ngempumelelo entle xa le migomo ilandelayo inokulandelwa ngabafundi njengoLwimi lwesithathu nolwesine. I-Afrikaans kumele isetyenziswe ngokuthe kratya ngaphandle kwamasango esikolo nangaphandle kwamagumbi okufundela. Amaqela okufunda nokuxhasana kumagumbi okufundela angenza igalelo elihle elufundiseni nasekufundeni iAfrikaans njengo-LQN. Ootitshala kumele ukuba bavelele neenkalo zemizwa nezihambelana neemeko ezenza ingqiqo kubafundi kwaye nezakhono zabazali kwi-Afrikaans ziphuhliswe. Kubalulekile ukuyifaka i-Afrikaans kwimiba ngemiba ukuze kuzalisekiswe oko kulindelekileyo kuMzantsi-Afrika ontetho ngeentetho neenkcubeko ezahlukeneyo. Olu phando lundulula ukuba ootitshala babenezakhono zokunxulumana ngeelwimi ezivame kakhulu kulo mimandla bafundisa kuyo. ISebe lezeMfundo lesiZwe kumaBanga aPhantsi, kumele ukuba lizinike ixesha lokuqwalasela ubume beelwimi nendlela ezithile ezifumaneka kuxwebhu loqulunqo-zifundo i-CAPS. Iziphumo zolu phando zingaphinda zisetyenziswe kwenye imeko esizweni okanye mhlawumbi nakumazwe aphesheya ngenxa yokuvama kwilizwe-jikelele ukufunda kwabafundi iilwimi zesibini ngeelwimi zesithathu, zesine nkqu nangezesihlanu. Ukuba izindululo zolu phando zingasetyenziswa ngaba bafundi bebethatha inkxaxheba kolu phando, isakhono sabo sokutyibilika kwi-Afrikaans njengolwimi lwabo lokuqala olongezelelweyo singaphucuka.

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