Towards improving the contribution of the EIA process to environmental governance : analysis of Namibian case studies

Joseph, Gabriel (2018-12)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Over the past years sustainable development has received more attention in the development of international and national policies, making it the essential component in legal documents of business community, government institutions and international agencies.It is widely recognised that environmental assessment is a valuable planning tool in the promotion for sustainable development. Most countries around the world, including Namibia, have legislation in place that requires environmental impact assessment in one form or another. Good governance has been identified as essential to sustainable development as the basic principle of good environmental decision-making, endorsed by the 178 member states at Rio Earth Summit in 1992. Namibia is committed to promoting sustainable development, which aims “to meet the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Namibia has one of the few constitutions in the world with specific sections on the environment. The country has an Environmental Management Act (No. 7 of 2007) which clearly stipulates the promotion of sustainable development in all aspects related to the environment. The main aim of this study was to assess how the EIA tool can contribute to the improvement of environmental governance, based on an analysis of EIA case studies undertaken in Namibia. The methodology used in this research comprised of literature review, use of questionnaires and case study reviews and analyses. The researcher worked closely with various institutions, especially the office of the Environmental Commissioner, to obtain information on EIA projects to be used as case studies. The research methodology was case study design, used to establish an understanding of the situation and critically analyse decision-making procedures for the five case studies, namely: Swakopmund Waterfront project; Tobacco plantation in Katima Mulilo; B2 Gold mine; Ohorongo Cement factory and Phosphate mining in Namibia. The researcher conducted quantitative research, and presents original findings. The convenience sampling method was used as sampling technique, based on specific players and EIA practitioners in the country. A survey included ten EIA practitioners throughout the country who were selected using systematic sampling based on the total population of 60 received from the Environmental Commissioner`s database. The findings from the case studies showed a satisfactory compliance with the legal framework of the country. The EIA report and verification programme for the Phosphate mining case study, in particular, set a high standard against which future EIAs in the country may be compared. The EIA process in the country was given an overall rating of low compliance on institutional control and relatively low quality of practice in administrative activities, with the exception of legal framework compliance and community participation /consultations. This study concludes that EIA practice for environmental governance and decision-making in Namibia is of moderate to low quality. Therefore, government and all relevant stakeholders need to develop and implement strategies that will improve environmental governance in the country.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Oor die afgelope jaar het volhoubare ontwikkeling meer aandag ontvang in nasionale en internasionale ontwikkelingsbeleid, wat dit die kern element van die beleidsdokumente van regerings, internasionale agentskappe en besigheid gemeenskappe maak. Dit word algemeen erken dat die omgewing assessering 'n nuttige beplanning, hulpmiddel vir die bevordering van volhoubare ontwikkeling is. Die meeste lande regoor die wêreld, insluitend Namibië, het wetgewing in plek wat omgewingsimpakstudie in een of ander vorm vereis. Goeie bestuur is as noodsaaklik geïdentifiseer om volhoubare ontwikkeling as die basiese beginsel van goeie omgewing besluitneming, onderskryf deur die 178 nasies in Rio Aardeberaad in 1992. Namibië is verbind tot die bevordering van volhoubare ontwikkeling. Dit is daarop gemik om die behoeftes van die huidige te voorsien, sonder om die vermoë van toekomstige geslagte om aan hul eie behoeftes te kompromeer. Namibië het een van die min grondwette in die wêreld met 'n spesifieke afdeling op die omgewing. Die land het 'n Wet op Omgewingsbestuur No. 7 van 2007, wat duidelik die bevordering van volhoubare ontwikkeling in alle aspekte wat verband hou met die omgewing stipuleer. Die hoofdoel van die studie was om te bepaal hoe die OIE hulpmiddel kan bydra tot die verbetering van omgewingsbestuur, gebaseer op 'n ontleding van OIE gevallestudies onderneem in Namibië. Die gebruikte navorsingsmetodologie bestaan uit 'n literatuuroorsig, die gebruik van vraelyste en gevallestudie resensies en ontleding. Die navorser het nou saamgewerk met verskeie instansies, veral die kantoor van die Omgewing Kommissaris, te bekom inligting oor OIE projekte gebruik word as gevallestudies. Die navorsingsmetodologie was ‘n gevallestudie ontwerp, wat gebruik word om 'n begrip van die situasie te vestig en om die besluitnemingsproses prosedures vir die vyf gevallestudies, naamlik: Swakopmund Waterfront projek; Tabak plantasie in Katima Mulilo, B2 Goudmyn; Ohorongo Cement fabriek en Fosfaat mynbou in Namibië krities te ontleed. Die navorser het kwantitatiewe navorsing gedoen, en bied oorspronklike bevindinge. Die gerieflikheidsteekproefneming is gebruik as steekproeftegniek, gebaseer op spesifieke spelers en OIE praktisyne in die land. 'n Opname sluit tien OIE praktisyn regoor die land in, wat gekies is met behulp van sistematiese steekproefneming wat gebaseer is op die totale bevolking van 60, ontvang van die Omgewing Commissioner`s databasis. Die bevindinge van die gevallestudies toon 'n bevredigende voldoening aan die wetlike raamwerk van die land. Die OIE-verslag en verifikasie program vir die Fosfaat mynbou gevallestudie, in die besonder, stel 'n hoë standaard waarteen toekomstige OIS in die land vergelyk kan word. Die OIE-proses in die land is 'n algehele weging van lae voldoening op institusionele beheer gegee en relatief lae gehalte van die praktyk in administratiewe aktiwiteite, met die uitsondering van regsraamwerk nakoming en gemeenskapsdeelname/konsultasies. Hierdie studie het tot die gevolgtrekking dat OIE praktyk vir omgewingsbestuur en besluitneming in Namibië van ‘n matige tot lae gehalte is, gekom. Daarom moet die regering en alle relevante belanghebbendes ontwikkel en strategieë implementeer wat omgewingsbestuur in die land sal verbeter.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105003
This item appears in the following collections: