Causes and management of diarrhoea in children in a clinical setting
Diarrhoeal disease and its complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children, especially in developing countries. Diarrhoea is characterised by an increased frequency and volume, and decreased consistency of stool from the norm. Pathogens vary between developed and developing world settings. Rotavirus diarrhoea is the most important aetiological agent implicated in severe dehydrating diarrhoea. Although it is important to recognise the specific microbiological causation of diarrhoea in order to target appropriate treatment, the broader preventive aspects put forward by the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate the fundamental contributors to the massive burden of disease in developing countries. The management of a child presenting with acute diarrhoea must include a thorough history and examination with evaluation of hydration status, nutritional status and comprehensive clinical evaluation for any complications or associated illnesses. The most recent advances in the area of acute diarrhoeal disease include zinc supplementation, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) and rotavirus vaccination.