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Evaluation of the energy model of a horizontally-mounted electric water heater through internal temperature measurement

dc.contributor.authorLeeuwner, L. L.
dc.contributor.authorNaude, N. H.
dc.contributor.authorRoux, M.
dc.contributor.authorBooysen, M. J.
dc.date.accessioned2018-06-26T07:35:18Z
dc.date.available2018-06-26T07:35:18Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.citationLeeuwner, L. L., et al. 2017. Evaluation of the energy model of a horizontally-mounted electric water heater through internal temperature measurement. In IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT-Asia), 4-7 December 2017, Auckland, New Zealand.
dc.identifier.issn2378-8542 (online)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.1109/ISGT-Asia.2017.8378365
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/104092
dc.descriptionCITATION: Leeuwner, L. L., et al. 2017. Evaluation of the energy model of a horizontally-mounted electric water heater through internal temperature measurement. In IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT-Asia), 4-7 December 2017, Auckland, New Zealand, doi:10.1109/ISGT-Asia.2017.8378365.
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at https://ieeexplore.ieee.org
dc.description.abstractThe resource-constraint energy sector faces an insatiable demand for energy, which necessitates improvements in efficiency. One key sector that has potential for savings is residential water heating, which makes up 32% of household energy. Previous studies have proven that with effective scheduling up to 29% savings can be achieved for a nominal consumption pattern. The model that was used to estimate the savings, calculates the energy usage for a given hot water consumption pattern and given heating schedule for a horizontally mounted water heater. This two-node model is used to aid user-informed scheduling and auto- scheduling, but was developed as a black-box model, validating the energy and not the internal temperatures, which could be misleading. This paper evaluates the accuracy of the model by performing temperature measurements inside the horizontal electric water heater. Moreover, two aspects neglected by the model are investigated: The node state transfer usage threshold, and the inter-nodal thermal resistance. The results show that the model significantly underestimates the stratification that occurs naturally. This underestimation also severely affects the modelled energy consumption and hides limitations of the model, preferring a lower threshold and higher inter-nodal resistance. The results also show that Legionella growth in the EWH could be a concern despite a high set point.en_ZA
dc.description.urihttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8378365/
dc.format.extent7 pages
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
dc.subjectElectric water heatersen_ZA
dc.titleEvaluation of the energy model of a horizontally-mounted electric water heater through internal temperature measurementen_ZA
dc.typeConference Paperen_ZA
dc.description.versionPreprint
dc.rights.holderInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers


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