Professional nurses’ perceptions of their role as mentors for novice nurses in the operating room

Liebenberg, Maruanda (2018-03)

Thesis (MCur)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: BACKGROUND Mentoring of novice nurses in the operating room (OR) is often neglected due to the specialised nature and inherent complexity of OR nursing, and compounded by a critical nursing shortage in the OR. Numerous studies reiterate the benefits of effective clinical mentoring. However, limited literature within the South African context regarding OR qualified professional nurses’ (PNs) perceptions of their role as mentors for novice nurses could be found. RESEARCH QUESTION The two-fold study was guided by the question: “How do OR qualified PNs perceive their role as mentors of novice nurses in the OR?” AIM The aim of this study was to understand and describe OR qualified PNs’ perceptions of their role as mentors of novice nurses in the OR. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the study were to understand and describe the perceptions of OR qualified PNs regarding their role as mentor of novice nurses, as well as the factors that could influence OR qualified PNs’ perception regarding their role as mentors of novice nurses. RESEARCH PROCESS To reach the objectives of this study, a descriptive qualitative research design was used. Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee of Stellenbosch University, two private healthcare institutions in the Free State Province and the Free State Department of Health. After a pilot interview was conducted, data were collected during four focus group discussions with sixteen purposefully selected participants who met the inclusion criteria. A semi-structured interview guide was used during audio-recorded focus group discussions, while the researcher and facilitator made field notes, especially concerning to group dynamics. The transcribed data were coded and recurring themes were identified. Lincoln and Guba’s strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability were applied to enhance the trustworthiness of the study. FINDINGS A continuous literature review provided the researcher with an understanding of the concepts related to mentoring in the OR. The study found that OR qualified PNs agree that their role as mentors incorporates orientation; support and creating a conducive environment for learning; and teaching novice nurses safe peri-operative practices. However, participants experienced that production pressure, staff shortages and insufficient material resources in the OR influence their mentorship capacity. They mentioned other challenges, including novice nurses’ limited competence, inadequate orientation for nurses entering the OR, as well as the attitudes of novice nurses and other OR team members. Markedly, participants in all four focus groups agreed that the mentoring of novice nurses in the OR is currently neither effective, nor conducive to learning. Participants attributed the poor retention of novice nurses, and nursing shortages in the OR to ineffective mentoring. CONCLUSION The study highlighted that OR qualified PNs regard adequate mentoring of novice nurses in the OR as fundamental in guiding them to deliver competent, independent and safe peri-operative nursing care. Yet, participants in both private and public hospitals experienced challenges in providing effective mentorship to novice OR nurses.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: AGTERGROND Mentorskap van die beginnerverpleegster in die operasiesaal (OS) word dikwels agterweë gelaat as gevolg van die gespesialiseerde omvang en kompleksiteit van OS-verpleging en word vergerder deur die kritieke tekort aan verpleegpersoneel in die OS. Verskeie studies beklemtoon die voordele van effektiewe kliniese mentorskap. Daar kon egter beperkte literatuur in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks met betrekking tot gekwalifiseerde verpleegsters se persepsie van hulle rol as mentors vir die beginner-verpleegster gevind word. NAVORSINGSVRAAG Die studie het voortgespruit uit die vraag: “Hoe beskou gekwalifiseerde Profesionele verpleegkundiges (PV) hulle rol as mentors vir beginnerverpleegsters in die OS” DOEL Die tweeledige doel van die studie is om OS gekwalifiseerde PVs se persepsies van hulle rol as mentor vir die beginnerverpleegster in die OS te verstaan en te beskryf. DOELWITTE Die doelwitte van die studie was om die persepsies van OS gekwalifiseerde PV’s aangaande hulle rol as mentor van die beginnerverpleegster sowel as die faktore wat die OS gekwalifiseerde PV’s se persepsie aangaande hulle rol as mentor van die beginnerverpleegster te verstaan en te omskryf. NAVORSINGSPROSES Om die doel van die studie te bereik, is ‘n beskrywende, kwantitatiewe navorsingsmodel gebruik. Etiese toestemming van die Gesondheidsnavorsingsetiek-komitee aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch (Health Research Ethics Committee of Stellenbosch University), twee private gesondheidsinstellings in die Vrystaat Provinsie en die Vrystaatse Department van Gesondheid is verkry. Na ‘n loodsonderhoud, is data versamel gedurende vier fokusgroep-besprekings met sestien geselekteerde deelnemers wat aan die kriteria voldoen het. ‘n Semi-gestruktureerde onderhoudsmodel is gebruik gedurende oudio-opnames van die fokusgroep besprekings terwyl die navorser en fasiliteerder kant-aantekeninge gemaak het veral oor groep dinamika. Die getranskribeerde data is kodeer en herhalende temas is identifiseer. Lincol en Guba se strategie van geloofwaardigheid, oordraagbaarheid, afhanklikheid en eenvormigheid is toegepas om die betroubaarheid van die studie te bevorder. RESULTATE ‘n Aaneenlopende oorsig van die literatuur het die navorser voorsien van begrip van die konsepte rakende opleiding in die OS. Die studie het bevind dat die OS-gekwalifiseerde PVs saamstem dat hulle rol as mentors oriëntasie en ondersteuning insluit, wat derhalwe ‘n ideale omgewing skep om beginnerverpleegsters veilige vooraf operatiewe sorg te leer. Deelnemers het gevind dat produksiedruk, personeeltekorte en onvoldoende navorsingsmateriaal in die OS hulle mentorskap beïnvloed. Hulle het ander uitdagings beskryf wat insluit die beginnerverpleegster se beperkte bevoegdheid, onvoldoende oriënetering van beginnerverpleegsters wat by OS begin sowel as die gesindheid van die beginnerverpleegsters en ander spanleiers in die OS. Dit was opmerkbaar dat al die deelnemers in die groepe saamgestem het dat opleiding van die leerlingverpleegster in die OR of nie effektief is of nie ‘n gesonde klimaat vir opleiding skep nie. Deelnemers het die hoë personeelomset en tekorte in die OS toegeskryf aan on-effektiewe mentorskap. GEVOLGTREKKING Die studie het uitgewys dat gekwalifiseerde OS-verpleegsters die genoegsame mentorskap vir leerlingverpleegsters as fundamenteel beskou om hulle te help om bevoegde, onafhanklike en veilige vooraf-operasiesorg te verseker. Die deelnemers het nogtans uitdagings beleef om goeie mentorskap aan die beginnerverpleegster te verskaf, beide in privaat en staatshospitale.

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