Speech act realisation strategies and possible effects of transference by speakers of Khoekhoegowab into English when acquired as a second language.

Uises, Yolanda Hermien (2017-12)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study focused on requestive behaviour of speakers of Khoekhoegowab (KKG) in their mother tongue and in English as a second language (ESL), to uncover strategies mother tongue speakers of KKG employ in performance of requests in both KKG and English. A cross- sectional survey design, utilizing quantitative research methods for data collection and analysis was used. Two questionnaires (one in KKG and one in English) were used in the form of Discourse Completion Tasks (DCTs) to collect data from participants. A total of 170 (85 in Khoekhoegowab and English respectively) requests by mother tongue speakers of Khoekhoegowab were obtained from 17 participants. The Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project (CCSARP) coding scheme was used to analyse data. Although the study mainly focused on directness levels, request perspective, internal and external modification devices and alerters were examined in relation to frequency of strategy use. Data analysis showed that speakers of KKG as mother tongue used a wide variety of strategies for request performance, with the most preferred strategy being the mood derivable followed by the query preparatory and explicit performative. Moreover, direct strategies were the most preferred across multiple situations characterised by both equal and unequal status relationships regardless of degree of familiarity. The interrogative and the marker toxoba “please” were preferred for internal modification, while grounders were most preferred for external modification. In relation to alerters, endearment terms were the most preferred. For ESL requests, the query preparatory was preferred, while the hedged performative and the mood derivable were least preferred. The query preparatory was also a preferred strategy for requests in standard British English (BE) (Memarian, 2012; Mahani, 2012). Thus, there was no evidence of transference of rules from KKG to ESL. In addition, direct strategies were used almost as frequently as conventionally indirect strategies in ESL, but less frequently in BE compared to conventionally indirect strategies (Konakahara, 2011). Thus, there is insufficient evidence of transfer of rules from KKG to ESL. The researcher was unable to determine the influence of KKG rules of request performance in ESL requests due to lack of consensus between Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1984) and Ogiermann (2009) regarding the preferred perspective by speakers of BE, including limited research in relation to request perspective in general and in BE in particular. The interrogative and the marker please were preferred internal modification devices in ESL requests. However, these modification devices were least preferred in BE (Konakahara, 2011). Although there were similarities in choice of external modification devices in English (ESL and BE) and KKG, there was lack of evidence to attribute the similarities to the effect of transference from KKG to ESL. Moreover, lack of sufficient information regarding alerters prevented judgements about possible effects of KKG on ESL request performance, although attention getters were preferred in ESL and BE requests.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die studie het op die taalgedrag van moedertaalsprekers van Khoekhoegowab (KKG) gefokus, om vas te stel watter strategieë die sprekers gebruik om versoeke te rig in sowel Khoekhoegowab as Engels. Die studie het 'n kruis-seksionele opname-ontwerp gevolg, en het gebruik gemaak van kwantitatiewe navorsingsmetodes vir data-insameling en -analise. Twee vraelyste (een in KKG en een in Engels) in die vorm van Diskoers Voltooiingstake is gebruik om die data te versamel. 'n Monster van 170 versoeke (85 in Khoekhoegowab en 85 in Engels) deur 17 moedertaalsprekers van KKG is versamel. Die Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project (CCSARP) koderingstelsel is gebruik om die data te analiseer. Hoewel die studie primêr op vlakke van direktheid gefokus het, is daar ook aandag gegee aan die verband tussen frekwensie van strategie-gebruik en versoek-perspektief, meganismes van interne en eksterne modifisering, en aanwysers ("alerters"). Die data-analise het getoon dat moedertaalsprekers van KKG 'n verskeidenheid strategieë gebruik wanneer hulle versoeke rig, met modus-afleibaar ("mood derivable") die voorkeur- strategie, gevolg deur die vraag-gereedmaak ("query preparatory") en eksplisiete performatief. Verder het direkte strategieë die grootste voorkeur geniet oor veelvoudige situasies, gekenmerk deur sowel gelyke as ongelyke statusverhoudings, ongeag die mate van familiariteit. Die vraagvorm en die merker toxoba “please” is verkies vir interne modifisering, terwyl begronders ("grounders") die grootste voorkeur geniet het vir eksterne modifisering. Wat aanwysers betref, is voorkeur gegee aan streelterme ("endearment terms"). Vir die rig van versoeke in Engels (as 'n tweede taal, ESL), het die KKG-sprekers die vraag- gereedmaker strategie verkies, met die minste voorkeur vir die ontwykingsperformatief ("hedged performative") en die modus-afleibaar . In vorige studies is gevind dat die vraag-gereedmaak ook die voorkeurstrategie in standaard Britse Engels (BE) is (Memarian, 2012; Mahani, 2012). Voorts word direkte strategieë bykans net so dikwels as konvensionele indirekte strategieë in ESL gebruik, terwyl dit in BE minder dikwels aangewend word as indirekte strategieë (Konakahara, 2011). Die huidige studie het dus nie genoegsame bewyse gevind dat sprekers van KKG wel taalgebruiksreëls vanaf hulle moedertaal na Engels oordra by die rig van versoeke nie. Daar kon ook nie vasgestel word of die taalgebruiksreëls wat geld in KKG 'n invloed het op sprekers se taalgedrag wanneer hulle versoeke in Engels rig nie. Dit kan toegeskryf word aan twee redes: enersyds die gebrek aan konsensus tussen Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1984) en Ogiermann (2009) wat betref die voorkeurperspektief van BE-sprekers, en andersyds die beperkte navorsing wat tot dusver gedoen is oor versoek-perspektief in die algemeen en in BE in die besonder. Soos in hulle moedertaal, het KKG-sprekers in die geval van interne modifisering voorkeur gegee aan die vraagvorm en die merker please wanneer hulle versoeke in Engels gerig het. Dit is in teenstelling met BE waar hierdie modifiseringsmeganismes skynbaar die minste voorkeur geniet (Konakahara, 2011). Hoewel daar ooreenkomste gevind is in die keuse van eksterne modifiseringsmeganismes in Engels (ESL sowel as BE) en KKG, het die huidige studie nie genoegsame bewyse gevind dat sulke ooreenkomste toegeskryf kan word aan oordrag vanaf KKG na Engels nie. 'n Gebrek aan voldoende inligting oor aanwysers het verder ook meegebring dat daar nie 'n gevolgtrekking gemaak kon word oor die moontlike invloed van KKG op die rig van versoeke in Engels nie. Daar is egter wel gevind dat aandagtrekkers ("attention getters") voorkeur geniet in Engelse versoeke (ESL en BE), in teenstelling met KKG se voorkeur vir streelterme.

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