Development of the leadership behavioural scale

Brynard, Charne Elaine (2018-03)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : In South Africa, the concept of effective leadership is constantly highlighted. South African organisations depend on good leadership to ensure that the overall performance and outcomes lead to optimal effectiveness of the organisation. Several leadership scales exist, measuring relationship-, task-, change-, and value-based-orientated behaviours. However, while each of these leadership scales measures an aspect of leadership behaviour, none of these scales measures the holistic concept of leadership behaviour. In addition, most of these measures have been developed outside of South Africa, which created an opportunity for the development of leadership measures within the South African culture. The primary focus of this study was to develop a new leadership scale, the Leadership Behaviour Scale (LBS), which would be a holistic measure of leadership behaviour within the South African context. The development of this scale was based on a thorough analysis that was done on leadership behaviours inherent to relationship-, task-, change-, value-based-, team- and strategic-orientated leadership. These concepts were used to identify the most critical leadership behaviours. Dimensions which measured leadership behaviour were formulated and identified, as well as items whereby the leadership behaviour could be measured. The LBS’s dimensions and items were depicted in a conceptual measurement model. The second focus of the study was to contextualise the concept of leadership behaviour within a nomological network of antecedents and outcomes. For the overall concept of leadership behaviour to be valid and effective, it was important to explore the positive effect that it might have on the working environment. Thus, the effect of organisational leadership on trust in the leader, and leader effectiveness was explored. Based on the literature study, a structural model was developed, which illustrated the relationship between these constructs, and various hypotheses were formulated. The data used in this quantitative study was collected through an electronic questionnaire, and 210 completed questionnaires were returned. The final questionnaire to collect the data consisted of three scales: Leadership Behaviour Scale (LBS), Leader Trust Scale (LTS) and Leader Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ). Empirical testing of the theorised models and hypotheses was conducted in two phases by using different statistical methods. First, the reliability of the LBS was tested where after an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were utilised to test the construct validity of the measurement model. After the analysis of the model, it was identified that the reliability of the LBS dimensions was very high. The CFA revealed that reasonable good fit was obtained for the overall measurement model of the LBS. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to determine the overall fit of the structural model, which included the variables of organisational leadership, trust in the leader, and leader effectiveness. The results indicated acceptable fit of the overall data, as well as that organisational leadership behaviour had a positive effect on leader effectiveness and trust in the leader. The latter again, had a positive effect on leader effectiveness. The study contributes towards the literature, because of the new leadership scale that was developed within a South African context. In addition, the study showed acceptable results when focusing on the initial reliability and validity. The study also provided some insight into the effect of organisational leadership on trust in the leader and leader effectiveness. These insights can therefore be used within South Africa to select leaders and to improve leader behaviour within organisations. The limitations and recommendations of the study provide useful guidelines for future research.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : In Suid-Afrika word voortdurend klem gelê op effektiewe leierskap. Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies is baie afhanklik van goeie leierskap vir organisatoriese sukses en optimale prestasie. Verskeie meetinstrumente vir leierskap bestaan wat gerig is om verhouding-, taak-, verandering-, en waarde-gebaseerde leierskapsgedrag te meet. Alhoewel elkeen van die meetinstrumente ‘n aspek van leierskap meet, ontbreek ‘n meetinstrument wat leiergedrag as ‘n holistiese konsep meet. Omdat meeste van hierdie meetinstrumente buite Suid-Afrika ontwikkel is, het dit 'n geleentheid geskep vir die ontwikkeling van meetinstrumente vir leiergedrag binne die Suid-Afrikaanse kultuur. Die primêre fokus van hierdie studie was dus om 'n holistiese meetinstrument, die Leadership Behaviour Scale (LBS), binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te ontwikkel. Die ontwikkeling van hierdie meetinstrument is gegrond op 'n deeglike analise van leiergedrag wat inherent deel is van verhouding-, taak-, verandering-, etie-s, span- en strategies-georiënteerde leierskap. Hierdie konsepte is gebruik om die belangrikste leiergedrag te identifiseer. Dimensies wat leiergedrag meet is ontwikkel, sowel as ‘n verskeidenheid van items wat die onderliggende gedrag van elke dimensie meet. Die dimensies en items is in ‘n konseptuele metingsmodel uitgebeeld. Die tweede doel van die studie was om die determinante en gevolge van leiergedrag binne die nomologiese netwerk van leierskap te toets. Om die waarde en effektiwiteit van leiergedrag te bepaal moes die positiewe effek daarvan op die werksomgewing ondersoek word. Binne dié konteks is die effek wat organisatoriese leierskapsgedrag op die vertroue in die leier en leierdoeltreffendheid het, ondersoek. Deur middel van literatuurstudie is 'n teoretiese strukturele model ontwikkel wat die verwantskappe tussen hierdie konstrukte illustreer. Verskeie hipoteses is ook geformuleer om die geldigheid van die veronderstelde verbande te bepaal en te toets. Die data wat in hierdie kwantitatiewe studie gebruik is, is deur middel van 'n elektroniese vraelys ingesamel, waarvan 210 voltooide vraelyste ontvang is. Die finale vraelys wat gebruik is om die data in te samel, het bestaan uit drie skale: die Leadership Behaviour Scale (LBS), die Leader Trust Scale (LTS) en die Leader Effectiveness Questionnaire(LEQ). Die teoretiese modelle en hipoteses is empiries deur middel van statistiese metodes getoets. Eerstens is die betroubaarheid van die LBS getoets, waarna 'n eksploratiewe faktorontleding en bevestigende faktorontleding gebruik is om die konstrukgeldigheid van die metingsmodel te toets. Na die analises van die model uitgevoer is, is vasgestel dat die betroubaarheid van die LBS dimensies baie hoog was. Die bevestigende faktorontleding het aan die lig gebring dat redelike goeie passing vir die algehele metingsmodel van die LBS verkry is, wat dus die konstrukgeldigheid van die LBS bevestig het. Strukturele vergelykingsmodellering is gebruik om die struktuur van die strukturele model te toets wat organisatoriese leierskapsgedrag, vertroue in die leier en leier effektiwiteit as veranderlikes insluit. Die resultate het ‘n aanvaarbare passing van die data in geheel aangedui en bevind dat organisatoriese leierskapsgedrag 'n positiewe effek het op vertroue in die leier en leierdoeltreffendheid, en dat vertroue in die leier ‘n positiewe effek op leierdoeltreffendheid het. Hierdie studie dra by tot die literatuur met die nuwe leierskapskaal wat binne die Suid- Afrikaanse konteks ontwikkel is. Daarbenewens het die studie aanvaarbare resultate getoon toe die fokus op voorlopige betroubaarheid en geldigheid was. Die studie het ook bygedra tot beter insig aangaande die effek van organisatoriese leierskapgedrag op vertroue in die leier asook leierdoeltreffendheid. Hierdie insigte kan dus in Suid-Afrika gebruik word om leiers te keur en om leiergedrag binne organisasies te verbeter. Die leemtes en aanbevelings van die studie verskaf nuttige riglyne vir toekomstige navorsing.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103681
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