South African nurse migration and reintegration of returning nurses

Pretorius, Cleopatra (2018-03)

Thesis (MCur)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: Return migration is becoming more popular as more countries with developing economies realise the potential of returnees, with encouragement of participation in improving the country. This study investigates the push and pull factors influencing nurse migration from South Africa (SA), as well as return migration in relation to the ease with which workplace reintegration takes place. The methodology applied in this study is that of descriptive (Husserlian) phenomenology within a qualitative approach. Purposive and snowball (network) sampling was done to obtain candidates with experience about the phenomenon. Ethical approval was granted by the Health Research Ethics Committee of Stellenbosch University for the study and approval to participate was obtained from the ten participants by way of their written informed consent. A pilot interview was conducted, followed by data collection via semi-structured interviews. These interviews were audio-recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Transcriptions were analysed, emerging themes identified, and the data coded accordingly. Member checking was done throughout, to ensure that the true meaning of the situation was portrayed: Interviewees were engaged with several times to clarify statements and information given regarding the status quo at the time of migration and return to ensure that the lived experiences of the participants were captured as fully as possible. The results were discussed in detail to portray the full extent of the experiences of the participants. Anonymity was maintained throughout the process to prevent exposure of the participants and to encourage true opinions. Trustworthiness was ensured with special attention paid to credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. The findings of this study show that the majority of participants migrated for economic reasons, since the remuneration in the SA healthcare sector is inadequate to make ends meet. However, once the main goals were attained, the majority returned to SA to fulfil their parenting role. Furthermore, workplace reintegration was found to be an individualised journey with negative and positive experiences along the way. It appears that successful sustainable workplace reintegration in SA depends mainly on two factors: current SA workplace issues that need to be addressed on management level, and the ability and the willingness of the individual to adapt to SA circumstances on return. In conclusion, the phenomenological approach used to obtain return migrant nurses lived experiences during their reintegration in the SA workplace allowed the researcher a deeper understanding of how they perceived this work environment, following international nursing exposure.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Migrasie terug na die land van herkoms raak al hoe gewilder in lande met ontwikkelende ekonomieë. Dit gaan gepaard met erkenning van die potensiaal van diegene wat terugkeer en aanmoediging van hul deelname aan die ontwikkeling van die land. Die studie ondersoek die faktore (druk na buite en trek terug na SA) wat verpleegmigrasie uit Suid Afrika (SA) beïnvloed, sowel as die terugkeer en gemak waarmee herintegrasie in die werkplek plaasvind. Beskrywende (ook bekend as Husserliaanse) fenomenologiese kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is in hierdie studie toegepas. Doelgerigte en sneeubalproefneming is gedoen om deelnemers se ervaring van die verskynsel te bepaal. Etiese goedkeuring vir die studie is van die Gesondheidsnavorsingsetiekkomitee van die Universiteit Stellenbosch verkry en die deelnemers het skriftelike, ingeligte toestemming gegee. 'n Loodsonderhoud is gevoer, gevolg deur data-insameling deur gebruik te maak van semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude. Dit is opgeneem en daarna woordeliks getranskribeer. Die transkripsies is ontleed, ontluikende temas geïdentifiseer en die data ooreenkomstig gekodeer. Deelnemerkontrole is deurentyd gedoen om te verseker dat die ware betekenis van die situasie weergee is. Deelnemers is verskeie kere geraadpleeg om stellings te verduidelik en inligting te gee met betrekking tot die status quo ten tyde van migrasie en terugkeer. Dit het verseker dat die ondervindinge soos beleef deur die deelnemers so volledig moontlik vasgelê is. Gedetailleerde besprekings van die resultate het gevolg om sodoende die volle omvang van die deelnemers se ondervindinge uit te beeld. Anonimiteit is regdeur die proses gehandhaaf om blootstelling van die deelnemers te voorkom en om verkryging van ware opinies aan te moedig. Betroubaarheid is verseker deur spesiale aandag aan geloofwaardigheid, oordraagbaarheid, betroubaarheid en bevestigbaarheid te gee. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie wys dat die meerderheid van deelnemers om ekonomiese redes migreer, omdat die vergoeding in die SA gesondheidsektor onvoldoende is om van te leef. Wanneer hoofdoelwitte egter bereik is, het die meerderheid na SA teruggekeer om hul ouerlike rol te vervul. Verder is daar is bevind dat werkplekherintegrasie 'n geïndividualiseerde reis met negatiewe en positiewe ervarings onderweg is. Dit blyk dat suksesvolle, volhoubare werkplekherintegrasie in SA van hoofsaaklik twee faktore afhang: die huidige SA werkplekkwessies wat op bestuursvlak aangespreek moet word, en die gewilligheid van die individu om met terugkeer by SA omstandighede aan te pas. Ten slotte het die navorser die fenomenologiese benadering gebruik om die ervarings van terugkerende migrerende verpleekundiges – soos beleef en weergegee tydens werkplekherintegrasie – te ondersoek. Dit het die navorser in staat gestel om dieper insig te kry in hoe hul die werksomgewing na internasionale verpleegblootstelling ervaar.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103671
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