National parks as economic engines : an overview of economic research methods for a developing country : Case Study : Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe

Cameron, Thomas (2018-03)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: The objective of this study is to consider and attempt to better understand the various methods which can be used to measure economic impacts of a National Park to a developing country’s economy. Through large amounts of international research, it is clear that National Parks are valued by stakeholders in a number of ways, with one of them being the economic activity that they generate through various sectors of the economy such as tourism, hospitality, construction and conservation. However, despite the potential benefits of National Parks that are investigated in this study, many governments still do not account an adequate financial allowance through the National Budget when it comes to their maintenance and management. Therefore a greater understanding of the financial transformation to economic outputs needs to be done through research and data capture to raise awareness of their potential impacts to the relevant government bodies. Unfortunately, Zimbabwe has had a very limited amount of primary economic research undertaken since its economic crisis between 2000 and 2010. This information gap is therefore one which needs to be filled through engagement of academic and research based institutions. With this in mind, this study has therefore screened a number of environmentally orientated papers and reports which have an economic impact aspect as part of its outputs. Through this process, 7 papers were identified and analysed based on their research methods and measurable outputs of the data captured. The information from this was then used to compile a primary research methodology in the form of interviews and questionnaires which was trialled within one of Zimbabwe’s largest National Parks. This form of primary data capture gathered information from both tourists and lodge managers within Hwange National Park to determine spending patterns and various demographics which will be produced into various summaries. This will provide information on the positive and negative aspects of the developed research methods which will then be assessed and a second attempt undertaken to determine which methods worked the best. However, due to a number of circumstances, the second survey received no useable feedback and therefore assumptions made from it were done through a sample of participants rather than through actual visitors within Hwange. The outputs and lessons learnt from the study are then used to build a toolkit or guideline to conducting environmental economic research under the specific condition experienced in a developing country such as Zimbabwe. Where possible, the collected data was used to generate economic assumptions such as elasticity, demand, supply chain and financial impacts of Hwange National Park and a few conclusions highlighted on these issues. More relevant is the understanding of where the collected data could actually be used based on the various theories and methods analysed in previous conducted research. The limitation of the various actions undertaken is also highlighted and discussed and is based on first-hand experience when undertaking primary research. Although this was somewhat ambitious based on the available resources and hands on the ground, the purpose was more of an experimental type of research to determine how best to tackle this type of data collection despite the lack of available information, communications and relevant institutional assistance that is currently experienced within Zimbabwe. The main findings of the study can be found in chapter 4 but are not limited to include average tourism spending, linkages between household income and average daily expenditure, linkages between geographic origination and average spending, employment of lodges, community initiatives and potential income generated through national parks.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie vraestel geskryf is te oorweeg en probeer om beter te verstaan die verskillende metodes wat gebruik kan word om ekonomiese impak van 'n Nasionale Park ekonomie 'n ontwikkelende land te meet. Deur groot hoeveelhede van die internasionale navorsing, is dit duidelik dat die Nasionale Parke gewaardeer deur belanghebbendes in 'n aantal maniere, met een van hulle die ekonomiese aktiwiteit wat hulle genereer deur middel van verskeie sektore van die ekonomie soos toerisme, gasvryheid, konstruksie, bewaring en so aan. Maar, ten spyte van die potensiële voordele van Nasionale Parke wat verder bespreek sal word in hierdie vraestel, baie regerings steeds nie 'n voldoende rekening finansiële toelae deur die Nasionale Begroting wanneer dit kom by hul onderhoud en bestuur. Dus 'n groter begrip van die finansiële transformasie ekonomiese uitsette gedoen moet word deur middel van navorsing en data capture om bewustheid van hul potensiële impakte op die betrokke regering liggame in te samel. Ongelukkig het Zimbabwe 'n baie beperkte bedrag van primêre ekonomiese navorsing onderneem sedert sy ekonomiese krisis tussen 2000 en 2010. Hierdie inligting gaping het is dus een wat gevul moet word deur middel van betrokkenheid van akademiese en navorsing gebaseer instellings. Met dit in gedagte, sal 'n belangrike beginpunt wees hoe om werklik te onderneem hierdie tipe navorsing. Hierdie vraestel het dus gekeur 'n aantal van omgewingsvriendelike georiënteerde vraestelle en verslae wat 'n ekonomiese impak aspek het as deel van sy uitsette. Deur hierdie proses, is 7 vraestelle geïdentifiseer en ontleed wat gebaseer is op hul navorsing metodes en meetbare uitsette van die data vasgelê. Die inligting van hierdie is dan gebruik om 'n primêre navorsingsmetodologie in die vorm van onderhoude en vraelyste wat opgestel binne een van die grootste Nasionale Parke Zimbabwe se stel. Hierdie vorm van primêre data capture versamel inligting van beide toeriste en lodge bestuurders binne Hwange Nasionale Park om bestedingspatrone en verskeie demografie wat geproduseer sal word in verskeie opsommings te bepaal. Dit sal inligting oor die positiewe en negatiewe aspekte van die ontwikkelde navorsingsmetodes wat dan beoordeel sal word en 'n tweede poging onderneem om te bepaal watter metodes die beste gewerk verskaf. Maar as gevolg van 'n aantal omstandighede, ontvang die tweede opname geen bruikbare terugvoer en dus aannames gemaak van dit het deur 'n monster van die deelnemers, eerder as deur werklike besoekers in Hwange. Die uitsette en lesse geleer uit die navorsing word dan gebruik om 'n toolkit of riglyn om die uitvoer van die omgewing ekonomiese navorsing onder die spesifieke toestand ervaar in 'n ontwikkelende land soos Zimbabwe te bou. Waar moontlik, is die versamelde data gebruik word om ekonomiese aannames soos elastisiteit, vraag, aanbod ketting en finansiële impak van Hwange Nasionale Park en 'n paar gevolgtrekkings uitgelig oor hierdie kwessies te genereer. Meer relevant is die begrip van waar die data wat ingesamel is eintlik gebruik kan word op grond van die verskillende teorieë en metodes in die vorige navorsing gedoen ontleed. Die beperking van die verskillende aksies onderneem word ook uitgelig en bespreek word en is gebaseer op die eerste hand ervaring wanneer onderneming primêre navorsing. Alhoewel hierdie was ietwat ambisieuse gebaseer op die beskikbare hulpbronne en hande op die grond, die doel was meer van 'n eksperimentele tipe navorsing om te bepaal hoe die beste om hierdie tipe van data-insameling te pak ten spyte van die gebrek aan beskikbare inligting, kommunikasie en relevante institusionele hulp wat is tans ervaar binne Zimbabwe. Die belangrikste bevindinge van hierdie tesis kan gevind word in hoofstuk 4, maar is nie beperk tot die gemiddelde toerisme besteding sluit, skakeling tussen huishoudelike inkomste en gemiddelde daaglikse uitgawes, skakeling tussen geografiese ontstaan en die gemiddelde besteding, indiensneming van lodges, gemeenskap inisiatiewe en potensiële inkomste gegenereer deur nasionale parke.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103670
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