The effectiveness of the spatial playmaker method of creative problem-solving: a pilot evaluation study

November, Eben David (2018-03)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Creativity is of paramount importance to organisations. It is the essential building block of not only the competitive advantage of organisations but of their continued survival. Organisations often opt to implement training programmes based on group-based creative problem-solving. However, for various reasons, such group-based methods may be ineffective and logistically difficult to implement. Hence, a method used by individuals may hold significant promise for organisations. Using an individual-driven problem-solving method, employees can act as multiple problem-solving engines working in parallel instead of as a single session-based problem-solving engine as is the case with group problem-solving. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the effectiveness of a creative problem-solving method called the Spatial Playmaker. After a review of the existing psychological literature on creativity, diverse streams of research were utilized to build rationales for each tool (both existing and newly created by the current investigator) that became part of the Spatial Playmaker method. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of Spatial Playmaker empirically, the significance of the effects of the use of the Spatial Playmaker on (1) Originality, (2) Acceptability, (3) Implementability, (4) Effectiveness, and (5) Completeness of solutions produced had to be determined. This pilot study utilized a Pretest Posttest Control Group research design. A total of 60 Small Medium Micro Enterprise (SMME) owners participated voluntarily, either as intervention group participants or comparison group participants. All participants resided in the Cape Winelands region of the Western Cape province of South Africa. Differences in pre- and post-test scores of the intervention group (ni=30), who participated in a half-day training intervention detailing how to use the Spatial Playmaker, were compared with differences in scores of the comparison group (nc=30). The five dependent variables in question (i.e. Originality, Acceptability, Implementability, Effectiveness, and Completeness) were measured by using the rating scales developed by Dean, Hender, Rodgers, and Santanen (2006). The results show that there was a significant group/time interaction effect on four of the five dependent variables, namely originality, acceptability, effectiveness, and completeness (p < .01 for all four variables). Furthermore, post hoc comparisons using the LSD test revealed that the intervention group significantly outperformed the comparison group on the post-test in terms of these four dependent variables. There was a group/time interaction effect on the fifth dependent variable implementability, but it failed to reach significance (p > .05). However, contrary to research expectations, post hoc comparisons using the LSD test revealed that the comparison group significantly outperformed intervention group on the post-test in terms of implementability. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Spatial Playmaker holds significant benefits as a creative problem-solving method for individuals. It is therefore concluded that the intervention (i.e. How to use the Spatial Playmaker method) had a positive impact on the originality, acceptability, effectiveness, and completeness of the solutions generated by the intervention group. This study contributes to a body of previous research supporting the training individuals in the use of creative problem-solving methods.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Kreatiwiteit is uiters belangrik vir organisasies. Dit is ‘n noodsaaklike bousteen vir beide innovasie en die voortgesette oorlewing van organisasies. Organisasies verkies dikwels om opleidingsprogramme wat op kreatiewe groepsprobleemoplossing gebaseer is, te implementeer. Ongelukkig, kan sulke groepsmetodes vir verskeie redes oneffektief en logisties moeilik wees om te implementeer. Dus kan ‘n metode wat deur individue gebruik word baie waarde vir organisasies inhou. ‘n Individu-gedrewe metode kan werknemers as meervoudige probleem-oplossende enjins wat parallel aan mekaar werk, in plaas van as ‘n enkele sessie-gebaseerde probleem-oplossende enjin, soos in die geval van groepsmetodes, laat optree. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n kreatiewe probleemoplossingsmetode, genaamd die Ruimtelike Spelskepper (Spatial Playmaker) te ontwikkel en die effektiwiteit daarvan te toets. Na ‘n oorsig van relevante literatuur oor kreatiwiteit is diverse navorsingsstrome gebruik om ‘n rasionaal vir die gebruik van elke tegniek (beide bestaande en die wat geskep is deur die huidige navorser) wat deel vorm van die Ruimtelike Spelskepper, te ontwikkel. Om die effektiwiteit van die Ruimtelike Spelskepper empiries te evalueer, moes die beduidenheid van die effek van die gebruik van die Ruimtelike Spelskepper op (1) Oorspronklikheid, (2) Aanvaarbaarheid, (3) Implementeerbaarheid, (4) Effektiwiteit, en (5) Volledigheid van geproduseerde oplossings bepaal word. Hierdie loodsstudie het van ‘n Voortoets-Natoets-Kontrolegroep navorsingsontwerp gebruik gemaak. Altesaam 60 Klein-Medium Mikro-onderneming (KMMO) eienaars het vrywilling aan die studie as intervensie- of vergelykingsgroepdeelnemers deelgeneem. Alle deelnemers was woonagtig in die Kaapse Wynlande streek van die Wes-kaap provinsie en was kliënte van verskeie klein besigheidsontwikkelingorganisasies. Verskille in voor- en natoetstellings van ‘n intervensiegroep (ni=30), wat ‘n halfdag opleidingsintervensie bygewoon het, is vergelyk met die tellings van die vergelykingsgroep (nc=30). Die vyf afhanklike veranderlikes (d.w.s. Oorspronklikheid, Aanvaarbaarheid, Implementeerbaarheid, Effektiwiteit, en Volledigheid) is gemeet deur gebruik te maak van evalueringskale wat deur Dean, Hender, Rodgers, en Santanen (2006) ontwikkel is. Die resultate toon dat daar ‘n beduidende groep/tyd interaksie-effek op vier uit die vyf afhanklike veranderlikes, naamlik oorspronklikheid, aanvaarbaarheid, effektiwiteit, en volledigheid, was (p < .01 vir al vier veranderlikes). Verder het post hoc vergelykings getoon dat die intervensiegroep beduidend beter as die vergelykingsgroep ten opsigte van hierdie vier veranderlikes op die na-toets presteer het (p < .01 vir al vier veranderlikes). Daar is ook ‘n groep/tyd interaksie-effek op die vyfde veranderlike (d.w.s. implementeerbaarheid) gevind, maar die effek was nie beduidend nie (p > .05). In teenstelling met die verwagtinge is bevind dat die vergelykingsgroep beter as die intervensiegroep ten opsigte van implementeerbaarheid op die na-toets presteer het. Gesamentlik suggereer hierdie bevindinge dat die Ruimtelike Spelskepper beduidende voordele as kreatiewe probleem-oplossingsmetode vir individue inhou. Gevolglik word die afleiding gemaak dat die gebruik van die Ruimtelike Spelskepper ‘n positiewe impak op die oorspronklikheid, aanvaarbaarheid, effektiwiteit, en volledigheid van die oplossings wat deur die intervensiegroep gegenereer is, gemaak het. Hierdie studie dra by tot vorige navorsing wat die opleiding van individue in die gebruik van kreatiewe probleem-oplossingsmetodes ondersteun.

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