Alignment of current graduate attributes required of medical graduates of the University of Botswana to the expressed needs of users of the Botswana Health Service

Sepako, Enoch (2018-03)

Thesis (MMed)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Traditionally, the design of health professions curricula was often guided by traditions, values and priorities of academics. This, however, has led to a mismatch of graduates’ competencies to patient and population needs, prompting a push for curricula design that aligns the goals of professional education with the needs of society. Unsurprisingly, needs assessment for curriculum design should include societal needs (expressed by the communities served and derived from health statistics). Others are perceived needs (identified by students/graduates), observed needs (identified by experts and academics) and organisation needs (identified by invested organisations). This research aimed to determine the extent to which graduate attributes of the University of Botswana Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) programme reflect expressed societal needs. There were two research objectives: Firstly, to determine the expressed needs of users of Botswana health service regarding care received from medical doctors. Secondly, to determine how the MBBS graduate attributes are aligned with the identified expressed needs. There is substantial literature on organisational and observed needs, some data on perceived needs and societal needs derived from health statistics to inform the review of the MBBS curriculum. However, there is no documented evidence of expressed societal needs. This gap in the literature served as the rationale for this study. An interpretivist research paradigm and qualitative approach were adopted. Interviews were conducted using the Critical Incident Technique and twelve participants described their good and bad consultation experiences with medical doctors. A purposive sample was selected through village development committees and patient advocacy groups. Eleven themes were identified as expressed societal needs, which include being respectful, empowering, humble, focused, empathetic, unprejudiced, trustworthy, welcoming, humane, thorough and personal. On the contrary, a number of these identified themes do not align with the defined MBBS graduate attributes, including being focused, unprejudiced, trustworthy, welcoming and thorough. This research, even though limited in the context of this assignment, points to the importance of reconsidering the MBBS graduate attributes with a view to making changes that reflect expressed societal needs.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die ontwerp van gesondheidsberoepe-curricula is in die verlede gebaseer op die tradisies, waardes en prioriteite van akademici. Dit het egter gelei tot onvoldoende belyning van die bevoegdhede van gegradueerde ten opsigte van die bevolking se behoeftes. Dit het gevolglik aanleiding gegee dat daar druk uitgeoefen word om curriculumontwikkeling in lyn te bring met die doel van professionele onderwys, naamlik om gemeenskapsbehoeftes aan te spreek. Dit is dus nie onverwags dat ʼn bepaling van gemeenskapsbehoeftes (soos aangedui deur gemeenskappe wat bedien word en wat van gesondheidstatistieke afgelei word) deel moet uitmaak van curriculumontwikkeling nie. Ander behoeftes sluit in soos ervaar is deur studente/graduandi, waargenome behoeftes (soos geïdentifiseer deur kenners en akademici) en organisatoriese behoeftes (soos geïdentifiseer deur belanghebbende organisasies). Die doel van hierdie navorsing was om te bepaal tot watter mate die eienskappe van die gegradueerde, soos vervat in die Universiteit van Botswana se Baccalaureus in Geneeskunde- en Baccalaureus in Chirurgie- (MBBS) program, die uitdruklike behoeftes van die gemeenskap weerspieël. Daar was twee doelwitte vir die navorsing gestel. Eerstens, om die uitdruklike behoeftes van verbruikers van gesondheidsdienste in Botswana te bepaal ten opsigte van die sorg wat ontvang is van medici. Tweedens, om te bepaal tot watter mate die eienskappe van die gegradueerde, soos vervat in die MBBS-program, belyn is met die geïdentifiseerde uitdruklike behoeftes van die gemeenskap. Daar is omvattende literatuur oor organisatoriese en waargenome behoeftes, sommige data oor ervaarde behoeftes en dié van gemeenskappe, soos afgelei is van gesondheidstatistieke, om die kurrikulumhersieningsproses toe te lig. Daar is egter geen dokumentêre bewys van die uitdruklike behoeftes van die gemeenskap nie. Hierdie gaping in die literatuur het as rasionaal gedien vir hierdie studie. ʼn Interpretatiewe navorsingsparadigma en kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg. Onderhoude is gevoer deur die Kritiese Insident Tegniek te gebruik. Twaalf deelnemers het hul goeie en slegte ervaringe met medici beskryf. ʼn Doelgerigte steekproef is geselekteer deur gebruik te maak van gemeenskapontwikkelingskomitees en ouerkampvegtergroepe. Elf temas is geïdentifiseer as uitdruklike behoeftes van die gemeenskap, wat insluit om respekterend, bemagtigend, nederig, gefokus, empaties, onbevooroordeeld, betrouenswaardig, verwelkomend, menslik, deeglik en persoonlik te wees. Daarteenoor belyn ʼn aantal van hierdie geïdentifiseerde temas nie met die gedefinieerde MBBS eienskappe van die gegradueerde nie. Dit sluit in om gefokus, onbevooroordeeld, betroubaar, verwelkomend en deeglik te wees. Hierdie navorsing, alhoewel beperk gegewe die konteks van die werkstuk, toon die belang aan om die MBBS eienskappe van die gegradueerde te heroorweeg deur veranderinge wat die uitdruklike behoeftes van gemeenskappe weerspieël.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103307
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