Phosphated polyurethane dispersions: Synthesis, emulsification mechanisms and the effect of the neutralising base
Phosphate-containing polyester macroglycols with different phosphate contents were synthesised from a phosphorus-containing monomer, a dicarboxylic acid and a diol. The macroglycols were then used as a soft segment for the preparation of segmented polyurethane dispersions. Aqueous dispersions were made by phase inversion from the organic solvent after the carboxylic acid groups were neutralized. Phase inversion was found to take place in three distinct stages. The stability and particle size of the polyurethane dispersions were dependent of the amount of carboxylic acid groups present, the degree of neutralisation and the neutralising cations. Metal-neutralized polyurethane dispersions gave smaller particle sizes and the corresponding films showed higher swelling in water due to the ease of hydration. The particle size and stability of the tertiary amine-neutralised polyurethanes were found to be related to the water solubility of the amines at a given dispersion temperature. Particle size increases for the higher alkyl chain neutalising amines due to the poor hydration of the corresponding cations.