Urban and rural prevalence of diabetes and pre- diabetes and risk factors associated with diabetes in Tanzania and Uganda

Chiwanga, Faraja S. ; Njelekel, Marina A. ; Diamond, Megan B. ; Bajunirwe, Francis ; Guwatudde, David ; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan ; Kalyesubula, Robert ; Adebamowo, Clement ; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo ; Reid, Todd G. ; Volmink, Jimmy ; Laurence, Carien ; Adami, Hans-Olov ; Holmes, Michelle D. ; Dalal, Shona (2016)

CITATION: Chiwanga, F. S., et al. 2016. Urban and rural prevalence of diabetes and pre- diabetes and risk factors associated with diabetes in Tanzania and Uganda. Global Health Action, 9(1):31440, doi:10.3402/gha.v9.31440.

The original publication is available at http://www.tandfonline.com

Article

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: The increase in prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa underlines the importance of understanding its magnitude and causes in different population groups. We analyzed data from the Africa/Harvard Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) studies to determine the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and risk factors associated with diabetes. Methodology: Participants were randomly selected from peri-urban (n 297) and rural (n 200) communities in Uganda, and teachers were recruited from schools (n 229) in urban Tanzania. We used a standardized questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and self-reported disease status including diabetes status. Blood glucose was also measured after participants fasted for 8 h. We used standard protocols for anthropometric and blood pressure measurement. Results: The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.1% and was highest in rural Ugandan residents (16.1%) compared to teachers in Tanzania (8.3%) and peri-urban Ugandan residents (7.6%). The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 13.8%. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was low across all sites, where 68% of participants with diabetes were not captured by self-report. In ultivariable logistic regression analysis, family history (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.6) and hypertension (OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.2) were significantly associated with diabetes. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in Uganda and Tanzania is high, differs markedly between population groups, and remains undiagnosed in an alarmingly high proportion of individuals. These findings highlight the need for large-scale, prospective studies to accurately quantify the burden and identify effective intervention and treatment strategies across diverse African populations.

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