Exploring food loss and waste along the biltong value chain in the Western Cape, South Africa

Beyers, Carla (2017-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Ten spyte van Suid-Afrika wat bekend is vir biltong, is daar vandag min gepubliseerde navorsing oor die gewilde produk. In Suid-Afrika, was totale biltong verkope in 2015 meer as R2,5 miljard. Dit sal belangrik wees vir biltong verwerkers in Suid-Afrika om potensiele marke raak te sien in die bedryf, veral vir die binnelandse mark. Onlangse, het groot skaal biltong verwerkers meer bekend geword. As gevolg van die groote van hierdie segment (30 ton droe produkt per maand) is dit belangrik om die wetenskap te verstaan agter die verwerking. Die sektor wat ondersoek was, fokus hoofsaaklik op die produksie van biltong en droewors. Die studie verduidelik die waardeketting en indetifiseer 'n paar verwerkings verliese aan die begin van die maak van biltong tot op die winkel se rakke. Daarom was die doel van hierdie navorsing om te kyk hoeveel biltonggaan verlore in die biltong ketting van Suid-Afrika. Die studie het 'n beskrywings studie benadering. Dit behels die versameling van kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe data in die vorm van vraelyste en opvolg vraelyste van sekondere verwerkers (biltong makers) en winkels in die waardeketting. Die inligting sluit in pryse en hoeveel tyd voeg waarde by, die maak van biltong. 'n Totaal van veertien biltong verwerkers en drie winkels het aan die studie deel geneem. Hierdie studie beklemtoon die voordele van die waardeketting analise as 'n nuttige hulpmiddel om 'n produk in 'n seckor te verstaan. Die resultate van hierdie studie het lae verwerkings verliese bevestig. Verwerkings verliese sluit verlies voor verwerking, verwerking self en na verwerkings verliese. Al drie verwerking verliese gedurende die verwerking en die handelaar punte van biltong en droewors is min. Totale voor verwerkings is 3% vir die rou vleissnitte, wat sening en bloedverlies insluit. Verwerkings verlies is 0,01%; Dit sluit in totale droe produkte wat nie geskik is vir verkoop aan kleinhandelaars nie per maand. Die naverwerkings verlies is die grootste ekonomiese verlies. Die naverwerkings verlies is aangeteken teen 0,01% tot 0,05% van die totale maandelikse droe produksie. Een handelaar se naverwerkings verlies is aangeteken teen 4%. Die mees algemene rede vir die verlies is muf op die droe produkte. Die hoofrede vir lae verliese is die aard van die kort termyn verkope soos geidentifiseer tydens die analise van toegevoegde waarde aan tyd. Die tyd aan toegevoegde waarde word aangedui deur die tyd wat toegelaat word van die maak van biltong tot op die winkels se rakke. Die tyd is slegs sowat vyf dae. Dit sluit in sny van rou vleis en droogmaak verwerking van biltong en droewors. Daarom beweeg die produk vinnig deur die verwerkings stadium na die kleinhandelspunte.

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Despite South Africa being a biltong producing country, little research has been published on this popular commodity. Biltong is not only a popular food product in South Africa but also popular worldwide-wide. In South Africa, biltong sales constituted more than R2.5 billion (€143 million) in 2015. It will be important for the country’s biltong processors to capture the potential of new and emerging markets to sustain the biltong industry in the future and to grow domestic demand. In recent years, large-scale biltong processors have emerged. Due to the size of this segment it is important to understand the science behind producing at such a large scale (30 tonnes of dry products per month), but the science of producing large quantities of biltong is not well understood or documented, even though value chain analysis provides a methodological tool to do so. The sector under investigation concentrates on the production of biltong products which included snapsticks and nuggets with the additional production of dry sausage (droewors). For the thesis, “biltong” includes large cuts pieces, plain cut pieces, chilli biltong products and snap sticks. To provide a better understanding of the sector, a biltong study funded by CIRAD was completed in May 2016. The study conducted a food loss analysis of biltong in the Western Cape of South Africa. The study mapped the value chain and showed that there are few processing losses from the start of process to retailer stores. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to further explore food loss and waste along the biltong chain of South Africa. The study adopted a case study approach. This entailed collecting qualitative and quantitative data in the form of questionnaires and follow-up questionnaires from secondary processors (biltong processors) and retail stores along the value chain. Data included losses, prices and value added time. A total of fourteen biltong processors and three retailers participated in the study for losses. This thesis highlights the benefits of value chain analysis as a useful tool in understanding sector performance. The results of this study have confirmed low processing losses for all the biltong and dry sausage products. Processing losses include pre-process, process and post-process loss. All three processing losses along the secondary and retailer point of biltong products and dry sausage supply chains for both beef and game are insignificant. Total pre-process loss is 3% weight-loss for one specific raw meat cut, which include sinew and blood loss. Cuts only included silverside and topside. Process loss is 0.01% . Process loss is the lowest loss of all three processing losses. This includes percentage of total product loss through the spicing and drying stage per month, which are unfit for sale to retailers. The highest loss identified is secondary producer and retailer post-process losses recorded at 0.01% to 0.05% of total monthly produce. One retailer’s post-process loss was recorded at 4%. The post process loss is the total amount of dry products return per month from retailers to secondary processors. The most common post-process loss recorded from secondary processors and retailers is mould. The main reason for low process losses is due to the nature of short-term sales as identified when analysing value added time. The value added time indicated that the lead-time (the time that must be allowed for the completion of a process) for biltong is only around five days. This includes cutting raw meat, spicing and drying. Therefore, the product moves fast through the processing stage to the retail point.

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