Divergent masculinity discourses among Stellenbosch student males: traditional masculinity and the progressive male/new man discourse

Adamson, Anjela (2017-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: The aim of this study is to explore the tensions and contradictions in the dialogue of male Students attending Stellenbosch University. Particular attention was given to the discourses of traditional masculinity and the new man masculinity, due to the fundamental divergence between these discourses. The premise of this study is that these two discourses are accepted in society and men assimilate these discourses to varying degrees, this causes men to vacillate between discourses due contextual prompts. Owing to the dialectical divergence in the masculinity discourses, contradictions and tensions can arise in the conversational context. There is an existent dearth on masculinity research in a University environment. This study further aims to contribute to the filling of that knowledge gap, specifically addressing hegemony and resistant to hegemony discourses in the male students dialogue. The ontological approach of the study was social constructionism. Therefore there was a concentration on the way participants use language by means of discourse to build ways of being in which they base the performance of masculinity. Focus groups that centered on open-ended masculinity discussion topics were used to facilitate a relaxed environment were masculinity discourses could emerge from the dialogue of the participants in a close to natural and sporadic manner. There were sixteen participants divided in four focus groups two of which were male only and an additional two, which were mixed sex. This division was to examine if there is an effect, due a female presence, on the male participants discourse and dialogue. The data from the focus groups was analyzed by means of Discursive Psychology. The main tool of analysis used was ideological dilemmas, which focuses on the contradictions in ideological themes or discourse, which thusly provided a useful analytic tool in the examination of the contradiction and dialectical tension between traditional masculinity and the new man masculinity. The findings indicated that there were contradictions and tensions between the discourses of traditional masculinity and the new man. The contradictions were reflected particularly in the equality and dominance components of the discourses. An unexpected finding was the Stellenbosch relationship with the new man and hegemony. The new man discourse is associated with the component of equality; however, the findings in this study reflected that there is a component of dominance in the new man, rather than only in the traditional masculinity discourse. The findings further indicated a transition from traditional masculinity to the new man. This has important implications in the gender equality properties and the reformation masculinity component that the new man is associated with. Masculinity is transitioning into a masculinity that has elements of hegemony, but it is performed differently to the hegemony in traditional masculinity, this holds considerable consequences for the gender equality principles in gender studies.

AFRIKAANS OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie is om die spannings en teenstrydighede in die dialoog van mansstudente by Stellenbosch Universiteit te ondersoek. Spesifieke fokus was geplaas op die diskoerse van tradisionele manlikheid en die nuwe-man manlikheid weens die fundamentele divergensie tussen hierdie diskoerse. Die uitgangspunt van hierdie studie is dat beide hierdie diskoerse in die samelewing aanvaar word, en dat mans hierdie diskoerse tot verskeie mates assimileer, dus veroorsaak hierdie verskynsel dat mans aarsel tussen dié diskoerse gebaseer op verskillende kontekstuele aanwysings. Gegewe die teenwoordigheid van dialektiese divergensie in die diskoerse van manlikheid, kan teenstrydighede en spannings onstaan in ʼn gesprekskonteks. Tans is daar n tekort aan navorsing gefokus op manlikheid in ʼn universiteitskonteks. Hierdie studie beoog om verder by te dra tot dié kennis gaping, deur hegemonie en weerstand tot hegemoniese diskoerse in die dialoog van mansstudente spesifiek aan te spreek. Die ontologiese benadering van hierdie studie was sosiale kontruksionisme. Dus was daar klem gelê op die verkeie maniere waarvolgens deelnemers taal, deur middel van diskoers gebruik, om weë van uitlewing te konstrueer waarop hulle hul uitvoering van manlikheid baseer. Die fokus groepe was gesentreer rondom ʼn oop bespreking van manlikheid-verwante onderwerpe, ten einde ʼn gemaklike omgewing te skep waarin manlikheidsdiskoerse spontaan kon onstaan in die dialoog van die deelnemers in a naby-aan naturlike en sporadies wyse. Daar was sestien deelnemers, onderverdeel in vier fokus groepe, waarvan twee groepe slegs mans bevat het, en ʼn verdere twee gemengde geslagsgroepe. Hierdie onderskeid was geskep met die doel om ondersoek in te stel aangaande die effek van ʼn vroulike teenwoordigheid, op die manlike deelnemers se diskoers en dialoog. Die data van die fokusgroepe was geanaliseer deur middel van Diskursiewe Sielkunde. Die hoof instrument van analise was die gebruik van ideologiese dilemmas, wat fokus plaas op die teenstrydighede in ideologiese temas van diskoers. Daarvolgens, verskaf hierdie benadering ʼn insiggewende analitiese instrument vir die ondersoek van die teenstrydiheid en dialektiese spanning tussen tradisionele manlikheid en die nuwe-man manlikheid. Die bevindinge het aangedui dat daar wel teenstrydighede en spannings tussen die diskoerse van tradisionele manlikeheid en die nuwe-man, teenwoordig was. Die teenstellings is in besonder geweerspieël in die gelykheid en dominansie komponente van die diskoerse. ʼn Onverwagse bevinding was die verhouding tusssen die nuwe-man en hegemonie. Die nuweman diskoers word geassosieer met die gelykheidskomponent; maar, die bevindinge van hierdie studie dui aan dat daar ʼn komponent van dominansie teenwoordig is in die nuwe-man, en nie slegs in die tradisionele manlikheids diskoers nie. Die bevinginge dui verder aan op die teenwoordigheid van ʼn oorgang vanaf tradisionele manlikheid to die nuwe-man. Hierdie verskynsel het belangrike implikasies vir die geslagsgelykheid eienskappe, en vir die hervorming van die manlikhiedskomponent waarmee die nuwe-man verband hou en geassosieer word. Manlikheid is besig om te transisioneer na ʼn manlikheid wat elemente van hegemonie bevat; maar, hierdie hegemonie word op ʼn ander wyse uitgevoer as die hegemonie teenwoordig in tradisionele manlikheid. Hierdie verskynsel het daadwerklike gevolge vir die beginsels van geslagsgelykheid in geslagsstudies.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/101114
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