Farmers, miners and the state in colonial Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia), c.1895-1961.

Madimu, Tapiwa (2017-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis explores the long and entangled relationship of farmers, miners and the state in Southern Rhodesia from 1895 when the Mines and Minerals Act was promulgated to promote the growth of the country’s mining industry. The study ends in 1961 when an amendment to this same Act was crafted after the incorporation of considerations from the country’s farmers and miners. The country’s mining law, devised by the British South Africa Company (BSAC) to further its commercial interests, became a subject of controversy around 1907 when agriculture, which had been hitherto neglected, started developing – spurred by disillusioned fortune seekers who had turned from prospecting for gold to pursue farming. The BSAC laws favoured mining and this was challenged by the growing settler farmer community. This laid the basis for the interaction of farmers, miners and the state throughout the study period. The thesis thus explores the protean nature of state policies in dealing with the country’s farmers and miners. Mining and agriculture were the country’s leading primary industries, with mining contributing more towards the country’s revenue until 1945 when it was replaced by agriculture on the apex position. Therefore, state policies on the two sectors had a direct impact on the overall country’s economy. The thesis engages broader historiographical conversations on agriculture, mining, conservation and intra-settler relations, law and taxation in Southern Rhodesia. It fills a historiographical gap in existing studies on intra-settler studies in Southern Rhodesia by providing a broader analysis of state-farmer-miner relations incorporating economic, political and conservation concerns. It shows the various shifts in state policies from Company administration into Responsible Government and highlights how different national and international economic developments impacted on state policies and in turn on minerfarmer interactions. The study also demonstrates how the adoption of a formal conservation policy by the G. Huggins government provided a new context for the regulation of minerfarmer relations by the state. It argues that, miner-farmer relations during the period under review impacted heavily on state policy and the country’s economy.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie proefskrif ondersoek die lang en verweefde verhouding tussen boere, mynwerkers en die staat in Suid-Rhodesië vanaf 1895 toe die Myne en Minerale Wet gepromulgeer is ten einde die land se mynbou te bevorder. Die studie eindig in 1961 toe ‘n amendement tot dieselfde wet bygevoeg is om die veranderende belange van die boere en mynwerkers te akkommodeer. Die land se mynwet wat oorspronklik deur die” British South African Company” (BSAC) ontwerp is om sy kommersiële belange te bevorder, het omstreeks 1907 omstrede begin raak toe landbou wat tot dan verwaarloos was, toenemend vooruit gegaan het. Dié verwikkeling het momentum begin kry toe ontnugterde goudprospekteerders eerder hulle tot boerdery gewend het. Die BSAC se mynwetgewing het die goudbedryf bevoordeel en die bedeling is toenemend deur die groeiende setlaar boerdery gemeenskap bevraagteken. Dit het die basis gevorm vir die interaksie tussen boere, mynwerkers en die staat gedurende die periode wat hier onder die loep geneem word. Die proefskrif ondersoek die vloeibare aard van staatsbeleid ten opsigte van die land se boere en mynwerkers. Mynbou en landbou was die land se toonaangewende primêre bedrywe met mynbou wat tot 1945 die meeste tot die algehele staatsinkomste bygedra het voordat dit deur landbou oortref is. Staatbeleid het derhalwe ten opsigte van die twee sektore ‘n direkte impak op die algemene landsekonomie gehad. Die proefskrif vind aansluiting by breëre historiografiese diskoerse rondom landbou, mynbou, bewaring, onderlinge setlaar verhoudings, wette en belasting in Suid-Rhodesië. Dit vul ‘n historigrafiese gaping in bestaande studies oor die onderlinge verhousing tussen setlaars in Suid-Rhodesië deur ’n breër ontleding van staat, boerdery en mynboubelange op ekonomiese, politieke vlak asook en bewaringsaspekte. Die verskeie beleidsaanpassings vanaf Kompanjiesbewind tot Verantwoordelike Bestuur word nagespeur en die wyse hoe verskillende nasionale en internasionale ekonomiese verwikkelinge staatsbeleid beinvloed het wat weer ‘n uitwerking op die verhouding tussen mynwerker en boer gehad het. Die studie demonstreer ook hoe die aanvaarding van ‘n formele bewaringsbeleid deur die regering van G Huggins ‘n nuwe konteks vir die regulering van die verhouding tussen mynwerker en boer daargestel het. Daar word geredeneer dat die verhouding tussen boer en mynwerker gedurende die tersaaklike periode ‘n betekenisvolle uitwerking op die staatsbeleid en die land se ekonomie gehad het.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/101109
This item appears in the following collections: