The age-old problem of pollution, its role in endocrine disruption and the current analytical technologies that can be employed to monitor and assess waste water treatment plants

Olivier, Daniel Wilhelm (2017-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Water scarcity is a global problem and pollution of this valuable resource is a growing concern. South Africa is no exception. As part of an on-going study aimed at developing decentralized water treatment systems based on biomimicry design, this project aimed to evaluate and optimize analytical methods that can be used to evaluate the efficiency of these systems in removing compounds with endocrine disrupting properties. In addition, this project also aimed to show the possible consequences if pollutants are not removed by investigating the effects of a number of endocrine disrupting chemicals in combination with one another and in combination with natural human hormones. This should provide a more realistic view of how a combination of pollutants that typically end up in the environment due to pollution can adversely affect organisms, and by extension, the ecosystem. It should also contribute to our understanding of how common pollutants that gets applied on the skin as personal care products (PCPs) can possibly influence human health and be linked to diseases such as breast cancer. The first aim resulted in a method that can be used to isolate, identify and quantify 11 endocrine disrupting chemicals (3 hormones, 1 synthetic hormone analog, 4 PCPs, 2 plasticizers and 1 anticonvulsant) and one human indicator. The method uses solid phase extraction to isolate compounds, dansyl chloride derivatization of compounds to enhance mass spectrometry detection and a novel super-critical fluid chromatography system, called an ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC2) system, coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for detection and quantification of each compound. This method can be used to evaluate the removal efficiency of waste water treatment systems. However, method validation revealed additional optimization and simplification should be considered. The second aim yielded data that showed the combined effect four common PCP pollutants as either being additive, antagonistic or synergistic. The data highlights how these PCPs can possibly interfere with the endocrine system of humans and animals if used as PCPs or are found in environment as pollutants. Finally, the data also suggest how common PCPs can influence diseases such as breast cancer.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Water skaarste is 'n wereld-wye probleem en die besoedeling van hierdie belangrike hulpbron is 'n toenemeende bekommernis. Suid-Afrika is geen uitsondering. As deel van 'n voortgaande studie met die doel om gedesentraliseerde water sisteme wat gebaseer is op biomimieke beginsels te ontwikkel, het hierdie projek beoog om die analitiese metodes wat gebruik kan word om hierdie sisteme se bekwaamheid in die verwydering van endokrien ontwrigtende produkte te ondersoek te evalueer en te optimiseer. Daarmee saam het hierdie projek ook beoog om die moontlike nadelige effekte van besoedeling te ondersoek deur ondersoek in te stel op 'n kombinasie van endokriene ontwrigters met mekaar, asook in kombinasie met natuurlike menslike hormone. Hierdie behoort 'n realistiese oorsig te gee oor hoe algemene produkte wat water bronne besoedel in kombinasie organismes ongunstig kan affekteer en so ook die ekosisteem. Dit sal ook bydra tot huidige kennis oor hoe algemeen besoedelende produkte wat op die vel aangesmeer word as persoonlike hieniese produkte (PHPs) die mens se gesondheid kan affekteer en verbind kan word tot siektes soos bors kanker. Die eerste doelwit het 'n metode opgelewer wat 11 endokriene ontwrigters (3 hormone, 1 sintetiese hormoon anoloog, 4 PHPs, 2 plastiseerders en 1 antistuipgif) en een menslike indikator kan isoleer, identifiseer en kwantifiseer. Die method maak gebruik van soliede fase ekstraksie vir die isolering van produkte, dansiel chloried derivatisering van produkte vir verbeterde massa spektrometrie deteksie en 'n nuwe super-kritiese vloeistof kromatografie, bekend as 'ultra-performance convergence chromatrogarphy (UPC2)‘, gekoppel aan aaneengekoppelde massa spektrometrie vir die deteksie en kwantifisering van elke produk. Hierdie metode kan gebruik work om die verwyderings bekwaamheid van afval-water behandeling sisteme te evalueer. Metode bevestiging wys wel dat aandag gegee sal moet word aan verdere optimisering en vereenvoudiging van die metode. Die tweede doelwit het bewys dat die effek van kombinasies van PHP besoedelende produkte sommerend, antagonisties of sinergisties kan optree. Die data wys verder die moontlike effekte wat PHPs kan hê op die endokriene sisteem van mense en diere as hierdie produkte gebruik word as PHPs of as besoedelende produkte in die natuur voorkom. Laastens, wys die data ook hoe algemeen gebruikte PHPs siektes soos bors kanker kan beïnvloed.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/101081
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