Influence of halogen salts on the production of the ochratoxins by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilh.
The first report of the biological production of bromo ochratoxin B by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilh. is presented as well as a study of the influence of potassium bromide, potassium iodide, potassium fluoride, and potassium chloride on the production of ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B. Potassium fluoride and potassium iodide inhibited the growth of the fungus, whereas potassium chloride substantially stimulated the production of ochratoxin A in shaken solid substrate fermentation on whole wheat or shredded wheat, generally giving a high yield of ochratoxins. Increasing levels of potassium bromide led to a decline in ochratoxin A production and an increase in bromo- ochratoxin B, ochratoxin B, and 4-hydroxy ochratoxin B. Nevertheless, A. ochraceus was much less versatile in the bromo analogues than other fungi, which produce metabolites containing chlorine. Analysis included aminopropyl solid-phase extraction column cleanup followed by quantitative analysis on reversed-phase HPLC using fluorescence detection and employing N-(5-chloro-2- hydroxybenzoyl)-phenylalanine as an internal standard.