Injury surveillance during the 2011 FNB Varsity Cup rugby season

Hillhouse, Melissa (2013-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to establish and compare the injury incidence in forwards and backline players during the 2011 FNB Varsity Cup season. The secondary objective was to establish and compare the injury prevalence in forwards and backline players during the 2011 FNB Varsity Cup season. Lastly, to establish and compare the different training loads, types of injuries and injury rates amongst the various rugby teams during the 2011 FNB Varsity Cup. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, descriptive study was done to assess injury prevalence and incidence during the 2011 FNB Varsity Cup rugby (premier division) competition. PARTICIPANTS: Male rugby playing students, from eight teams. The total number of observed rugby players from the seven teams consisted of ±23 – 30 players, all between the ages of 18 and 25 years (23 ± 1.2 years). All players had to qualify according to the rules of the Varsity Cup23,45. METHODS: The data collection procedure and injury definitions were aligned with the respective consensus statement for rugby injuries12. The injury surveillance included all injuries that were reported on the standardized IRB injury form (Addendum D), by each rugby team’s medical support staff. There were eight rugby teams partaking in the 2011 FNB Varsity cup, premier division tournament. The FNB Varsity cup took place at eight University venues in South Africa. The FNB Varsity Cup round robin began in February 2011 where games were played every Monday evenings over a seven to nine week period, on a home and away basis. The play-offs of the top four teams followed for two more weeks. Injury surveillance statistics were calculated and compared with training loads and the number of hours of exposure. Injury rates are expressed as the number of injuries sustained per 1000 hours a player is at risk. Descriptive statistics were used to report the prevalence and incidence of all injuries during the tournament. A significance level of p<0.05 was accepted. RESULTS: Seven out of the eight teams participating in the 2011 FNB Varsity Cup were able to submit injury and training statistics. Of these seven teams, there were 178 (6.1 injuries per 1000 hours)injuries in total reported throughout the season. 61 pre-season injuries were found (2.1 per 1000 hours) compared to 117 (4.0 per 1000 hours) in-season injuries reported. There were 125 match injuries (89 per 1000 hours) and 52 training injuries (1.58 per 1000 hours) which was statistically significant (p = 0.039). The total number of new injuries were 120 (4.1 per 1000 hours) with only 52 (2.0 per 1000 hours) recurrent. The lower limb was affected by 97.5% of the total injuries. Over-all the most injured sites showed a common trend, namely the ankle and foot with 15.9% and the head 15.3% of the total injuries. The shoulder (11.4%), hamstring (10.2%), knee (10.2%) and quadriceps (9.7%) were all similarly affected. The injury sites varied between forwards and backline players (forwards: 63.4% backline: 36.6%). The forwards most injured anatomical site showed a trend with the shoulder and ankle (0.5 per 1000 hours) being affected the most. The hamstring (0.4 per 1000 hours), ankle, head (0.3 per 1000 hours) and knee (0.2 per 1000 hours) were the most injured site amongst the backline players. The tackle was responsible for the cause of the majority of the injuries (total: 19.1 injuries per 1000 hours) amongst the forwards and backline players (forwards: 20.5 per 1000 hours backs: 13.6 per 1000 hours). The most common types of injuries were sprains (18.2 per 1000 hours) and strains (24.5 per 1000 hours) found amongst the forwards and backline players. The forwards had higher contusion and concussion (0.3 per 1000 hours) trend rates compared to the backline players. The backline had overall higher tendinopathy (0.2 per 1000 hours) trend rates. Amongst the forwards, the locks (15.2%) and props (12.9%) had the highest number of injuries and amongst the backline players were the wings (8.4%) and centres (9%) were the most injured players. The majority of the injuries occurred during the last part of the first half (26.7%) and the last part of the second half (30.7%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence and incidence of match injuries was significantly higher than during training (p = 0.039). Similarly to other injury surveillance studies, the tackle was the most dangerous phase of play. The Forwards who are more engaged in a greater number of physical collisions in a game resulted in more injuries compared to backline players71. The backline players, due to their style of play had more running and accelerating injuries5,24. Fatigue and other confounding factorssuch as a lack of physical conditioning, travel and academics could be a determinant to decreasing the threshold for injury’s occurring during the last part of each half of the game, during matches22. Furthermore, the site, type and mechanism of injuries vary across individual playing positions as well as from team to team24,26. This suggests that different training styles for the various positions should be recommended as an addition to an injury prevention protocol at this level of rugby.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: DOELWITTE: Die primêre doel van hierdie studie was om die beserings in voor- en agterspelers gedurende die 2011 FNB Universiteitsbeker seisoen vas te stel en te vergelyk. Die sekondêre doel was om die beserings in voorspelers en agterspelers gedurende die 2011 FNB Universiteitsbeker seisoen vas te stel en te vergelyk. Laastens, om die verskillende ladingsoefeninge, tipe beserings en hoeveelheid beserings onder die verskillende rugbyspelers gedurende die 2011 FNB Universiteitsbeker vas te stel en vergelyk. STUDIE ONTWERP: 'n Retrospektiewe beskrywende studie is gedoen waarin die geneigdheid tot, en die voorkoms van beserings gedurende die 2011 FNB Universiteitsrugby toernooi bepaal is. DEELNEMERS: Manlike studente rugbyspelers, vanaf agt spanne. Die totale aantal rugbyspelers wat geanaliseer was, was vanaf slegs sewe spanne, bestaande uit ± 23 - 30 spelers in elke span. Hierdie spelers was almal tussen die ouderdomme van 23 ± 1.2 jaar. Al die spelers moes 'n geregistreerde student by een van die agt deelnemende universiteite gewees het gedurende die toernooi regoor Suid-Afrika in 2011. METODE: Die data insamelingsproses en beseringsdefinisies is in lyn met die onderskeie konsensus ooreenkomste vir rugby beserings12. Die besering opname sluit alle beserings in wat deur elke rugbyspan se mediese personeel op die gestandardiseerde IRB beseringsvorm aangedui is. Daar was agt deelnemende rugbyspanne in die 2011 FNB Universiteitsbeker-toernooi. Die FNB Universiteitsbeker het plaasgevind by agt Universiteit kampusse regoor Suid-Afrika. Die FNB Universiteitsbeker rondomtalie het in Februarie 2011 begin waar wedstryde elke Maandagaand, oor ‘n tydperk van sewe tot nege weke, gespeel is. Die uitspeelwedstryde van die top vier spanne het daarop gevolg vir ‘n verdere twee weke. Beide, die voorkoms van beserings en die frekwensies daarvan is aangeteken en vergelyk volgens die oefenprogramme en die hoeveelheid blootstellingsure van die spelers. Beseringsfrekwensies is gerraporteer as die aantal beserings per 1000 uur waar ‘n speler blootgestel word aan die risiko. Beskrywende statistiek is gebruik om diegeneighdheid tot, en die voorkoms van alle beserings aan te meld tydens hierdie toernooi. Betekenisvolheidsvlak was geneem op p <0.05. RESULTATE: Sewe van die agt deelnemenede spanne aan die 2011 FNB Varsity Cup was in staat om besering- en oefenstatistiek in te dien. Van hierdie sewe spanne, was daar 178 (6.1 beserings per 1000 ure) beserings in totaal aangemeld regdeur die seisoen. Een en sestig voor-seisoenale beserings is gerapporteerd (2,1 per 1000 ure) in vergelyking met die 117 (4,0 per 1000 ure) inseisoense beserings wat aangemeld is. Daar was 125 wedstrydbeserings (89 per 1000 ure) en 52 beserings tydens oefeninge (1,58 per uur 1000) wat statisties betekenisvol (p = 0,039) was. Die aantal nuwe beserings was baie hoër as die herhalende voorkoms van ‘n besering. Die totale aantal nuwe beserings was 120 (4,1 per 1000 ure) met slegs 52 (2,0 per 1000 ure) herhalendes. Dit was die onderste ledemaat wat in die meerderheid beseringsgevalle (97.5%) geraak is. Oor die hele spektrum was die enkel en die voet die mees beseerde area (15,9%), met die kop (15,3%), skouer (11,4%), dyspier (10,2%), knie (10,2%) en kwadriseps (9,7%) wat soortgelyk geraak is. Areas vir individuelebesering het gewissel tussen voor-en agterspelers. Die voorspelers se mees beseerde anatomiese area was die skouer en enkel (0,5 per 1000 ure). Die dyspier (0,4), enkel-, kop (0,3) en knie (0,2) was die mees beseerde area onder die agterspelers. Die takel was verantwoordelik vir die meerderheid van die beserings (48.1%) onder die voor- en agterspelers. Die mees algemene vorme van beserings was verstuitings en spierverrekking onder die voor- en agterspelers. Die voorspelers het ‘n hoër voorkoms van kontusie en harsingskudding (0,3) in vergelyking met die agterspelers. Die agterlyn dui ‘n algehele hoër tendinopatie (0,2) aan. Onder die voorspelers het die slotte (15,2%) en die stutte (12,9%) die hoogste aantal beserings aangeteken en onder die agterspelers was die vleuels (8,4%) en die senters (9%) die mees beseerde spelers. Die meerderheid van die beserings het plaasgevind gedurende die laaste deel van die eerste helfte (26,7%) en die laaste deel van die tweede helfte (30,7%).GEVOLGTREKKING: Die prevalensie en insidensie van wedstrydbeserings was aansienlik hoër as tydens oefentye. Soortgelyk aan ander beseringsopname studies, was die takel die mees gevaarlike fase van die spel. Die voorspelers wat meer betrokke is in die fisiese kant van die spel het meer beserings in vergelyking met die agterspelers aangeteken71. Die agterspelers, as gevolg van hul styl van die spel het meer hardloop en versnel beserings aangeteken5,24. Moegheid en 'n gebrek aan fisiese kondisionering kan 'n faktor wees in die meerderheid van hierdie beserings wat gedurende die laaste deel van elke wedstrydshelfte aangeteken word. Verder, die area, tipe en meganisme van beserings wissel oor individuele spelerposisies24,26. Dit dui daarop aan dat verskillende oefenstyle vir die verskillende posisies aanbeveel moet word as 'n strategie vir besering voorkoming.

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