Attrition of under-graduate male nursing students at a private nursing education institution in Gauteng

Hutchinson, Frances (2016-12)

Thesis (MCur)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY ENGLISH SUMMARY : The nursing profession forms the mainstay of the healthcare system in South Africa (SA). The profession needs a consistent supply of qualified nurses to deliver continuous safe quality care, as well as to replace those that leave the profession or retire from it. However, the nursing profession is losing nurses and prospective nurses during and after completion of a nursing course for a variety of reasons. Globally, the attrition rate of under-graduate male nursing students far exceeds the attrition rate of female nursing students. Despite men always having been in nursing, attrition of under-graduate male nursing students is poorly understood. No specific data is available regarding this phenomenon in SA. Therefore, understanding and exploring reasons for attrition among these male nursing students could potentially assist educators and nursing education institutions to generate and formulate strategies towards a higher throughput rate. The aim of the study was to explore and understand the reasons for the attrition of under-graduate male nursing students at a private nursing education institution. The objectives of this study were to: • Explore and understand the reasons for attrition of under-graduate male nursing students at a private nursing education institution in Gauteng. • Understand the challenges that male under-graduate nursing students encounter. • Identify the demographic factors that contribute to the attrition of male under-graduate nursing students at a private nursing education institution in Gauteng. A descriptive, phenomenological qualitative study design was applied. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted by a trained interviewer in which participants shared their experiences of having been under-graduate male nursing students. An exploratory interview was completed with one of the participants. The data collected was evaluated for trustworthiness by measuring and assessing the data for credibility, conformability, dependability and transferability (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290; Polit & Beck, 2012:175). Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University. Institutional permission was also obtained from the management of the private nursing education institution in Gauteng. Informed consent was obtained from the former male nursing students. The data was analysed according to the five-step process as explained by Terre Blanche, Durrheim and Painter (2006:322-325). These five steps are: Step 1: Familiarisation and immersion; Step 2: Inducing themes; Step 3: Coding; Step 4: Elaboration; and Step 5: Interpreting and checking of data. Findings demonstrated that attrition of male under-graduate nursing students is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that is poorly understood. Factors that contributed to their decision not to complete their studies were: academic inadequacies; attitude of students towards their studies; family (social) responsibilities; feelings of failure and regret; ill health or poor wellness; inadequate support (clinical and educational); inadequate knowledge of the programme; isolation in the workplace; long working hours and wrong career choice The recommendations to ensure higher throughput rate were given as follows: Current selection criteria to be re-evaluated; nursing as a career for males to be promoted; academic, remedial and emotional support systems to be improved; attrition rates to be monitored annually; and exit interviews to be conducted with students so that they can verbalise their intent to discontinue their training. The conclusion that was reached during this study was that attrition of under-graduate male nursing students is very complex and that it requires concrete systems in place to identify and assist at-risk male nursing students from discontinuing their studies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die verpleegberoep vorm die steunpilaar van die gesondheidsorgstelsel in Suid-Afrika (SA). Die professie benodig 'n bestendige lewering van gekwalifiseerde verpleegsters om deurlopende veilige gesondheidsorg te lewer, asook om diegene te vervang wat die professie verlaat of uittree. Die verpleegberoep verloor geregistreerde verpleegsters en voornemende verpleegsters tydens en na voltooiing van 'n verpleeg kursus vir 'n verskeidenheid van redes. Die uitvalsyfer van voorgraadse manlike verpleegstudente is wêreldwyd hoer as die uitvalsyfer van vroulike verpleegstudente. Ten spyte daarvan dat mans nog altyd in die verpleegberoep was, word die redes vir die uitvalsyfers onder hierdie manlike verpleegstudente swak verstaan. Geen spesifieke inligting is beskikbaar aangaande die hoer uitvalsyfers onder manlike verpleegstudente in SA nie. Kennis en begrip van die redes vir die uitvalsyfers onder manlike verpleegstudente kan verpleegonderwys instansies potensieel help om strategiee te formuleer wat sal lei tot hoer slaagsyfers. Die doel van die studie was om die redes vir die hoer uitvalsyfers onder manlike verpleegstudente by 'n private verpleegonderwys instelling te ondersoek en verstaan. Die doelwitte van hierdie studie was om: • die redes vir die uitvalsyfer onder voorgraadse manlike verpleegstudente by 'n private verpleegonderwys instelling in Gauteng te verken en te verstaan. • die uitdagings wat manlike voorgraadse verpleegstudente ondervind te verstaan. • die demografiese faktore wat bydra tot die hoer uitvalsyfer onder manlike voorgraadse verpleegstudente by 'n private verpleegonderwys instelling in Gauteng te identifiseer. 'n Beskrywende, fenomenologiese kwalitatiewe studie ontwerp is toegepas. Agt semi- gestruktureerde onderhoude is deur 'n opgeleide onderhoudvoerder met die deelnemers gevoer waar hulle hul ervarings as voorgraadse manlike verpleeg studente gedeel het. 'n Voortoets is voltooi met een van die deelnemers. Die data wat ingesamel is, is ge-evalueer vir geloofwaardigheid volgens die kriteria van voldoenbaarheid, ooreenkomstigheid, betroubaarheid en oordraagbaarheid (Lincoln & Guba , 1985 : 290 ; Polit & Beck , 2012: 175). Etiese goedkeuring is verkry van die Gesondheidsnavorsing se Etiese Komitee by die Fakulteit Geneeskunde and Gesondheidswetenskappe, Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Institusionele toestemming is ook verkry van die bestuur van die private verpleegonderwys instelling in Gauteng. Ingeligte toestemming is verkry van die voormalige manlike verpleegstudente. Die data is ontleed volgens die vyf-stap proses soos uiteengesit deur Terre Blanche, Durrheim en Painter (2006: 322-325). Die vyf stappe is: Stap 1: Vertroud raak en verdiep raak; Stap 2: Bevestiging van temas; Stap 3: Kodering; Stap 4: Uitbreiding en Stap 5: Interpretasie en kontrolering van data. Bevindinge het getoon dat die hoer uitvalsyfer onder manlike voorgraadse verpleging studente 'n komplekse en multifaktoriale verskynsels is wat swak verstaan word. Faktore wat bygedra het tot die manlike verpleegstudente se besluit om nie hul studies te voltooi nie was: akademiese tekortkominge; houding van die studente ten opsigte van hul studies; familie (sosiale) verantwoordelikhede; gevoelens van mislukking en teleurstelling; siekte of swak gesondheid; onvoldoende ondersteuning (kliniese en opvoedkundig); onvoldoende kennis van die verpleegprogram; isolasie in die werkplek; lang werksure en die verkeerde beroepskeuse. Die volgende aanbevelings om ‘n hoer slaagsyfer te verseker en die voorsetting van studies te bevorder was as volg: hersiening van huidige seleksie kriteria; om verpleging as 'n loopbaan onder die manlike geslag te bemark; akademiese, remedierende en emosionele ondersteuningstelsel te verbeter; jaarlikse monitering van uitvalsyfers en ‘n persoonlike uittree onderhoud met manlike verpleegstudente wat hul voornemes uitspreek om hul opleiding te staak. Die gevolgtrekkings wat tydens die studie bereik is, het bewys dat die uitval van voorgraadse manlike verpleegstudente baie kompleks is en dat die bes moontlike strategie in plek moet wees om die manlike verpleegstudente te identifiseer wat die gevaar loop om hulle studies te staak.

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