The development and empirical evaluation of a psychological well-being at work structural model for geriatric care staff

Vermaak, Christel (2016-12)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Nursing staff constitute the largest group of employees in the healthcare industry (Giallonardo, Wong, & Iwasiw, 2010) and evidence suggests that they experience the lowest levels of job engagement and the highest levels of burnout when compared to other professional healthcare groups, including physiotherapists, child welfare workers and social rehabilitation workers (Fasoli, 2010; Nerstad, Richardsen, & Martinussen, 2010). In the light of the aforementioned it is of great importance to gain insight to those factors which may contribute to occupational health and well-being, and by implication, productivity outcomes of nursing staff (Hafner et al. 2015). The research exploring indicators of well-being in nurses tends to focus on nursing staff within hospitals, with nursing staff employed in aged care facilities (i.e. institutions specialising in the provision of care for elderly patients) receiving less attention (Rodwell, Noblet, Demir, & Steane, 2009). This is despite the trend of an aging population and the subsequent increased demand for aged care services (Kennedy, 2005). Consequently, this study attempts to develop a model that depicts a nomological network of positive psychological variables hypothesised to explain variance in the psychological well-being at work of geriatric care staff. Research on the predictors of changes in well-being incorporates job-related factors, personal resources and work-home interfaces (Sonnentag, 2015) and the legitimacy of these factors as predictors of employee well-being justifies the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model as the theoretical underpinning of this study. This study included the job demand of Illegitimate Tasks, the personal resources of Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy and Calling, as well as Job Crafting. All of these variables were hypothesised to influence the well-being of geriatric care staff either dierctly or indirectly. Boers (2014) recently developed a model focused on explicating the nomological network of variables underlying two constructs of occupational well-being, namely subjective well-being (SWB) and psychological well-being at work (PWBW). Subjective well-being was defined as hedonic well-being (HWB) and eudaimonic well-being (EWB). Hedonic well-being at work was defined as positive affect and negative affect. This study supports Boers’s (2014) conceptualisation of occupational well-being and subsequently the same constructs of well-being are included in this study. This study made use of a non-experimental research design in order to explore the relationships between the various constructs. A convenience sample of n = 206 nursing staff, employed by aged care facilities in Gauteng, completed a composite questionnaire. PWBW was assessed with the Index of psychological well-being at work (IPWBW; Dagenais-Desmarais & Savoie, 2012). HWB was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) whilst EWB was measured with Ryff’s (1989) Psychological well-being scale (RPWB). Tims, Bakker and Derks’s (2012) Job Crafting Scale was used to measure the participants’ Job Crafting tendencies and their sense of calling was measured with the Multidimensional Calling Measure (MCM; Hagmaier & Abele, 2012). Pisanti, Lombardo, Lucidi, Lazzari and Bertini’s (2008) brief Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Nurses (OCSE-N) was used to measure the participant’s level of OCSE and lastly, the Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS; Semmer, Tschan, Meier, Facchin, & Jacobshagen, 2010) was used to assess the perceived occurrence of illegitimate tasks. The validity and reliability of the measurement instruments were evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item analysis. The structural model was fitted using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in order to investigate to which extent the constructs successfully explained variance in PWBW. The significance of the two moderation effects was tested with moderated regression analyses. The results revealed significant relationships between various of the constructs. Both aspects of HWB, namely PA and NA were found to be significant predictors of PWBW. Calling emerged as a significant predictor of both PA and EWB and Illegitimate Tasks positively influenced NA. OCSE had a direct effect on Job Crafting and EWB. PWBW was shown to be positive related to OCSE. EWB, however, did not emerge as a significant predictor of PWBW. Support was not found for the hypothesised interaction effect of Job Crafting on the Calling and EWB relationships, or for the moderating effect of Illegitimate Tasks on the Calling and EWB relationship. This study contributed to the body of research delineating antecedents of PWBW and the practical value of the findings are condensed into managerial recommendations as well as suggestions for further studies regarding the management of PWBW of geriatric care staff. In conclusion, the results indicate that the model provides a plausible explanation of the network of variables explaining variance in PWBW of geriatric care staff.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die grootste groep werknemers in die gesondheidsorgindustrie is verpleegpersoneel (Giallonardo, Wong, & Iwasiw, 2010) en die navorsing dui dat hulle, in vergelyking met ander gesondheidsorgpersoneel (insluitend fisioterapeute en maatskaplike werkers), die laagste vlakke van werksbetrokkenheid en die hoogste vlakke van uitbranding ervaar (Fasoli, 2010; Nerstad, Richardsen, & Martinussen, 2010). Met inagneming van die bogenoemde is dit van kardinale belang om beter insig te kry in die faktore wat kan bydra tot werknemerwelstand en, by implikasie, die produktiwiteit van verpleegpersoneel (Hafner et al. 2015). Navorsing oor verpleegpersoneelwelstand is oor die algemeen meer gefokus op verpleegpersoneel in hospitale, as op verpleegpersoneel in bejaardesorgfasiliteite, i.e. instansies was spesialiseer in die versorging van bejaardes (Rodwell, Noblet, Demir, & Steane, 2009). Dit is ten spyte van die groeiende bejaarde populasie and die daaropvolgende toenemende aanvraag vir bejaardesorgdienste (Kennedy, 2005). Hierdie studie poog dus om ‘n model te ontwikkel wat deur ‘n nomologiese netwerk van veranderlikes, variansie in die sielkundige welstand van bejaardesorg verpleegpersoneel verduidelik. Die “Job Demands-Resources” (JD-R) model dien as die teoretiese fondasie van hierdie studie aangesien voorspellers van werknemerwelstand werksverwante faktore, persoonlike hulpbronne en werk-huis-koppelvlakke in sluit. Die studie sluit die werkseis van Onregverdigbare Take, die persoonlike hulpbronne van Werksverwante Selfdoeltreffendheid en Roeping, en ook die konstruk van “Job Crafting” in. Dit was voorspel dat elk van die bogenoemde veranderlikes die welstand van bejaardesorg verpleegpersoneel direk of indirek sal beïnvloed. ‘n Onlangse model, ontwikkel deur Boers (2014), bied ‘n moontlike verduideliking van veranderlikes onderliggend aan beroepswelstand, met spesifieke verwysing na Subjektiewe Welstand (SW) en Sielkundige Welstand by die Werk (SWW). SW was gedefinieër as Hedoniese Welstand (HW) en Eudimoniese Welstand (EW). HW was verder gedefinieer as Positiewe Emosies (PE) en Negatiewe Emosies (NE). Hierdie studie ondersteun Boers (2014) se konseptualisering van beroepswelstand en dus is dieselfde welstandkonstrukte in hierdie studie ingesluit. Die verwantskappe tussen die veranderlikes was ondersoek deur die gebruik van ‘n nieeksperimentele navorsingsontwerp. ‘n Gerieflikheidsteekproef van n = 206 verpleegpersoneel, werksaam by bejaardesorginstansies in Gauteng, het ‘n saamgestelde vraelys ingevul. SWW was gemeet deur die Indeks vir Sielkundige Welstand by die Werk (ISWW) ontwikkel deur Dagenais- Desmarais en Savoie (2012). Die Positiewe en Negatiewe Emosieskedule (PENES; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) is gebruik om HW te meet en SW is gemeet met Ryff (1989) se Sielkundige Welstandskaal (RSW). Pisanti, Lombardo, Lucidi, Lazzari en Bertini (2008) se kort Werksverwante Selfdoeltreffendheidsvraelys vir Verpleërs was gebruik om die vlakke van Werksverwante Selfdoeltreffendheid te meet en laastens, was die werknemers se persepsie van Onregverdigbare Take gemeet deur die Bern Onregverdigbare Take Skaal (BOTS; Semmer, Tschan, Meier, Facchin, & Jacobshagen, 2010). Derks (2012) se “Job Crafting Scale” was gebruik om die verpleegpersoneel se neigings tot werksomvorming te meet. Die betroubaarheid en geldigheid van die meetinstrument was evalueer deur bevestigende faktorontleding en itemanalise. Die strukturele model is op die data gepas deur middel van strukturele vergelykingsmodellering om te bepaal tot watter mate die konstrukte variansie in SWW verduidelik. Die beduidendheid van die interaksie-effekte was getoets met regressie-analises. Die resultate het gedui dat verskeie van die konstrukte beduidende voorspellers van welstand is. Beide aspekte van HW, naamlik PE en NE, het ‘n beduidende uitwerking op SWW gehad. Roeping is ‘n beduidende voorspeller van PE en EW, en Onregverdigbare Take het ‘n positiewe uitwerking op NE gehad. Werksverwante Selfdoeltreffendheid het ‘n direkte invloed op Werksomvorming en EW getoon. SWW was postitief verwant aan Werksverwante Selfdoeltreffendheid. Geen beduidende verhouding tussen EW en SWW is gevind nie. Die invloed van die interaksie-effek van Werksomvorming op die verhouding tussen Roeping en SW was nie beduidend nie. Die interaksieeffek van Onregverdigbare Take op die Roeping en SW verwantskap was ook nie beduidend nie. Die studie dra by tot die navorsing op die voorspellers van SWW. Die waarde van die bevindinge is omskryf in voorstelle vir toekomstige navorsing, asook praktiese voorstelle vir die implementering in bejaardesorginstansies om die SWW van verpleegpersoneel optimaal te beïnvloed. Ter opsomming, die resultate dui aan dat die model ‘n waarskynlike verduideliking bied van die netwerk van veranderlikes wat variansie in bejaardesorgverpleegpersoneel se SWW bepaal.

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