Determination of volatile phenol in cabernet sauvignon wines, made from smoke-affected grapes, by using HS-SPME GC-MS
CITATION: De Vries, C. J., et al. 2016. Determination of volatile phenol in cabernet sauvignon wines, made from smoke-affected grapes, by using HS-SPME GC-MS. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 37(1): 15-21, doi:10.21548/37-1-754.
The original publication is available at http://www.journals.ac.za
The increased incidence of vegetation fires near vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa has led to growing concern over the appearance of smoke taint in the affected grapes. This study focused on the effect of smoke exposure on the volatile phenol (VP) composition of wines made from affected grapes over two vintages (2012 and 2013). Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were exposed, 10 days post-véraison, to a single, hour-long treatment with smoke derived from burning a mixture of vegetation (including fynbos) under controlled conditions in enclosures. Enclosures were sealed for 24 h after exposure, and then removed. Grapes were allowed to ripen and wines were then produced. Wines were analysed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS) for selected volatiles. The results of the investigation show that the exposure of grapes to smoke during ripening leads to the accumulation of VPs that were detected in wines. The detected VPs were guaiacol, phenol and the cresols. Smoke exposure of grapes during ripening may have a negative impact on wine quality due to the accumulation of these compounds.