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A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts

dc.contributor.authorBlackburn, Tim M.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorEssl, Franzen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Thomasen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHulme, Philip E.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorJeschke, Jonathan M.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorKuhn, Ingolfen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorKumschick, Sabrinaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMarkova, Zuzanaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMrugala, Agataen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorNentwig, Wolfgangen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorPergl, Janen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorPysek, Petren_ZA
dc.contributor.authorRabitsch, Wolfgangen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorRicciardi, Anthonyen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorRichardson, David M.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSendek, Agnieszkaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorVila, Montserraten_ZA
dc.contributor.authorWilson, John R. U.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorWinter, Martenen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorGenovesi, Pieroen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorBacher, Svenen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-11T12:47:43Z
dc.date.available2016-03-11T12:47:43Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.citationBlackburn, T. M. et al. 2014. A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biology, 12(5):e1001850, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001850.en_ZA
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001850
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98880
dc.descriptionCITATION: Blackburn, T. M. et al. 2014. A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biology, 12(5):e1001850, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001850.en_ZA
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at http://journals.plos.org/plosbiologyen_ZA
dc.description.abstractSpecies moved by human activities beyond the limits of their native geographic ranges into areas in which they do not naturally occur (termed aliens) can cause a broad range of significant changes to recipient ecosystems; however, their impacts vary greatly across species and the ecosystems into which they are introduced. There is therefore a critical need for a standardised method to evaluate, compare, and eventually predict the magnitudes of these different impacts. Here, we propose a straightforward system for classifying alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts, based on the mechanisms of impact used to code species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Invasive Species Database, which are presented here for the first time. The classification system uses five semi-quantitative scenarios describing impacts under each mechanism to assign species to different levels of impact—ranging from Minimal to Massive—with assignment corresponding to the highest level of deleterious impact associated with any of the mechanisms. The scheme also includes categories for species that are Not Evaluated, have No Alien Population, or are Data Deficient, and a method for assigning uncertainty to all the classifications. We show how this classification system is applicable at different levels of ecological complexity and different spatial and temporal scales, and embraces existing impact metrics. In fact, the scheme is analogous to the already widely adopted and accepted Red List approach to categorising extinction risk, and so could conceivably be readily integrated with existing practices and policies in many regions.en_ZA
dc.description.urihttp://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001850
dc.format.extent11 pages : illustrationsen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherPLoSen_ZA
dc.subjectAlien speciesen_ZA
dc.subjectAlien species -- Classificationen_ZA
dc.subjectAlien species -- Ecological complexityen_ZA
dc.titleA unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impactsen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.description.versionPublisher's versionen_ZA
dc.rights.holderAuthors retain copyrighten_ZA


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