Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the South African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS) among patients with fibromyalgia

dc.contributor.authorMorris, Linzette D.
dc.contributor.authorGrimmer-Somers, Karen A.
dc.contributor.authorLouw, Quinette A.
dc.contributor.authorSullivan, Michael J.
dc.identifier.citationMorris, L.D., Grimmer-Somers, K.A., Louw, Q.A. & Sullivan, M.J. 2012. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the South African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS) among patients with Fibromyalgia. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10(137):1-13, doi:10.1186/1477-7525-10-137.en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn1477-7525 (print)
dc.identifier.issn1477-7525 (online)
dc.descriptionPublication of this article was funded by the Stellenbosch University Open Access Fund.en_ZA
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at
dc.description.abstractBackground: Pain catastrophization has recently been recognized as a barrier to the healthy development of physical functioning among chronic pain patients. Levels of pain catastrophization in chronic pain patients are commonly measured using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Objective: To cross-culturally adapt and validate the South African PCS (SA-PCS) among English-, Afrikaans- and Xhosa-speaking patients with fibromyalgia living in the Cape Metropole area, Western Cape, South Africa. Methods: The original PCS was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with international standards to develop an English, Afrikaans and Xhosa version of the SA-PCS using a repeated measures study design. Psychometric testing included face/content validity, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha-α), test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlations-ICC), sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity (by comparing the adapted SA-PCS to related constructs). Results: The cross-culturally adapted English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS showed good face and content validity, excellent internal consistency (with Chronbach’s α = 0.98, 0.98 and 0.97 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, as a whole, respectively), excellent test-retest reliability (with ICC’s of 0.90, 0.91 and 0.89 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively); as well as satisfactory sensitivity-to-change (with a minimum detectable change of 8.8, 9.0 and 9.3 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively) and cross-sectional convergent validity (when compared to pain severity as well as South African versions of the Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia and the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire). Conclusion: The SA-PCS can therefore be recommended as simple, efficient, valid and reliable tool which shows satisfactory sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity, for use among English, Afrikaans and Xhosa-speaking patients with fibromyalgia attending the public health sector in the Western Cape area of South Africa.en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorshipStellenbosch University Open Access Funden_ZA
dc.format.extent13 p. : ill.
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen_ZA
dc.subjectChronic pain -- Patients -- Psychologyen_ZA
dc.subjectPain catastrophizingen_ZA
dc.subjectPain -- Psychological aspectsen_ZA
dc.subjectSouth African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS)en_ZA
dc.titleCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the South African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS) among patients with fibromyalgiaen_ZA
dc.description.versionPublishers' versionen_ZA
dc.rights.holderAuthors retain copyrighten_ZA

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