The development of coloured education with special reference to compulsory education, teacher training and school accommodation

Backman, Frederick Gedye (1991)

Thesis (D. Ed.) -- University of Stellenbosch, 1991.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation is a study of the development of Coloured education with special reference to compulsory education, teacher training and school accommodation. Although the original intention was not the establishment of separate schools, public schools established in 1822 and the mission schools eventuated into schools for Whites on the one hand and Coloureds on the other. By 1912 the separation of pupils along colour lines was complete, and in 1964 Coloured education was transferred to a separate department, the Department of Coloured Affairs. Reasons necessitating transfer were given as follows: -the needs of Coloured education would receive appropriate attention: and -Coloured people would ultimately gain control over their own education. Development had to take place within historical patterns of authority. In practice, however, it was impossible to adhere to this principle. After initial reservations, White officials accepted this and became part of the new developments. The Department developed all phases of education, including primary, technical and university education on the basis of equality with Whites. The syllabuses and curricula were based on national core syllabuses and curricula. By 1984, Coloureds effectively were in complete control of their education. Initially Coloured education was financed by a system known as financing by objectives. At present education is financed by means of a formula which is used by all education departments. However, by multiplying the formula with an "a" factor, an attempt was made to narrow the gap between the different departments. In 1905 legal provision was made for the introduction of compulsory school attendance for all White children within certain defined age groups, living within a radius of three miles of a school. As far as Coloureds were concerned, unsuccessful attempts were made in 1945 to introduce compulsory school attendance. As from 1968 it became compulsory for all pupils enrolled to attend school regularly during the year of enrolment. Then in 1974 progressive compulsory school attendance was introduced for all children within defined age groups, living within five kilometers of a state school. In 1964 the Department was faced with the following problems with regard to teacher training: -each province formulated its own training courses; -teachers were, by and large, inadequately qualified; and -the supply of teachers was insufficient for the needs. Firstly, the problem of different courses was solved by phasing in the Cape Province's courses into the other provinces and later with the introduction of new courses. Secondly, the post-Standard 8 courses were phased out and only post-Senior Certificate courses were offered. Part-time and correspondence courses were introduced to enable teachers to improve their qualifications without withdrawing from active teaching. Thirdly, the shortage of teachers was solved by giving married women permanent status, by introducing equal pay for equal work and by embarking on campaigns for recruitment of teachers. Coloured education always experienced an accommodation shortage as a result of rapid growth in enrolments and the under-utilisation of funds. Double-shift classes were introduced and various methods of building construction were used to provide additional accommodation within a short space of time. Double-shift classes were later phased out with the introduction of temporary classrooms and the application of scientific methods of planning. Development over the years was towards equality. Achieving equality is a long-term development. It not only involves the school, but also concerns the quality of life of the community. With still about eighty per cent of the Coloured population being classified as under-developed, the road ahead is a long one.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie proefskrif is 'n studie van die ontwikkeling van Kleurlingonderwys met spesiale verwysing na verpligte skoolbywoning, onderwysersopleiding en skoolakkommodasie. Alhoewel dit nie die oorspronklike doel was om hierdie skole te skep nie, het die staatskole gestig in 1822 en die sendingskole ontwikkel tot skole vir blankes en Kleurlinge onderskeidelik. Teen 1912 was die skeiding van leerlinge voltooi en teen 1964 is Kleurlingonderwys oorgeplaas na 'n aparte departement, naamlik, die Departement van Kleurlingsake. Redes vir die oorplasing was as volg: -die behoefte aan Kleurlingonderwys sou behoorlik aandag geniet: en -om die Kleurlingbevolking uiteindelik beheer oor hul eie opvoeding te gee. Ontwikkeling van onderwys moes egter plaasvind binne historiese patrone van gesag. In die praktyk was dit egter onmoontlik om uitvoering te gee aan hierdie beginsel. Na aanvanklike voorbehoude het blanke amptenare dit aanvaar en deel geword van die nuwe ontwikkelings. Die Departement het probeer om alle fasette van opvoeding insluitende primêre, tegniese en universiteitsopvoeding op gelyke vlak met die van blankes te ontwikkel. Die sillabusse en kurrikula is gebaseer op nasionale kernsillabusse en -kurrikula. Teen 1984 was die Kleurlinge in volle beheer van hul eie onderwys. Aanvanklik is Kleurlingonderwys gefinansier deur 'n stelsel bekend as doelwitbegroting. Tans word onderwys gefinansier deur middel van 'n formule wat deur alle onderwybdepartemente gebruik word. Deur egter die formule te vermenigvuldig met 'n "a"-faktor word gepoog om die ongelykhede tussen die departemente uit te wis. In 1905 is wetlike voorsiening gemaak vir die instelling van verpligte skoolbywoning vir alle blanke kinders binne 'n sekere gedefinieerde ouderdomsgroep wat binne 'n radius van drie myl van die skool gewoon het. Sover dit die Kleurlinge betref, is daar onsuksesvolle pogings in 1945 aangewend om verpligte skoolbywoning in te stel. In 1968 is dit verpligtend gemaak dat alle leerlinge wat daardie jaar ingeskryf is, skool gereeld moes bywoon. In 1974 is progressiewe verpligte skool bywoning ingestel vir alle kinders binne 'n gedefinieerde ouderdomsgroep en wat binne vyf kilometer van 'n staatskool gewoon het. In 1964 is die Departement gekonfronteer met die volgende probleme met betrekking tot onderwysersopleiding: -elke provinsie het sy eie onderwysersopleiding gehad; -lae akademiese kwalifikasies van onderwysers; en -onvoldoende voorsiening van onderwysers. Eerstens is die probleem van verskillende kursusse opgelos deur die instelling van Kaapprovinsie se kursusse in ander provinsies en later met die instelling van nuwe kursusse. Tweedens is die na-standerd 8-kursusse uitgefaseer en slegs die Seniorsertifikaatkursusse is aangebied. Deel tydse en korrespondensiekursusse is ingestel om dit moontlik te maak vir onderwysers om hul kwalifikasies te verbeter. Derdens is die onderwyserstekorte opgelos deur aan getroude vroue permanente status te gee asook die instelling van gelyke betaling vir gelyke werk en deur werwingsaksies. Kleurlingonderwys het maar al tyd 'n akkommodasietekort ondervind as gevolg van die toenemende groei van inskrywings en die onderverbruik van fondse. Dubbelskofklasse is ingestel en verskillende tipe geboue is opgerig om voorsiening te maak vir die akkommodasie van leerlinge. Met die oprigting van tydelike klaskamers en die toepassing van wetenskaplike beplanningsmetodes, was dit moontlik om die dubbelskofkasse uit te faseer. Ontwikkeling deur die jare was meer gerig op gelykheid. Om gelykheid te bereik, is langtermynbeplanning benodig. Dit sluit nie alleen die skool in nie, maar ook 'n verhoging van die lewenskwaliteit van die gemeenskap. Met sowat tagtig persent van die Kleurlinggemeenskap wat geklassifiseer is as onderontwikkel, is die pad vorentoe nog lank.

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