Die invloed van aktiewe leertyd op die bewegingsontwikkeling van hoerskoolmeisies in liggaamlike opvoeding

Krause, Yalda (1991-12)

Tesis (M. in Menslike Bewegingskunde) -- Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 1991.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active learning time (ALT) on the motor development of standard six girls. The subjects (N = 28) were randomly selected and assigned to an experimental (n= 14) and a control group (n= 14). The experimental teacher and the control teacher each taught a nine lesson unit in gymnastics. Both teachers received identical lesson objectives. No restrictions were imposed upon the planning and teaching· strategies of the teachers. Data were collected through movement tests. The students were pre- and post-tested for eight basic gymnastic skills prior to and immediately following the instruction of the unit. Videotape recordings were made of all the classes conducted by both teachers. The behaviours of target students were systematically observed and coded in time units by means of a duration recording instrument. The six main student behaviours measured were Motor Engagement, Cognitive Engagement, Social Engagement, Affective Engagement, Organizational Engagement and Non-engagement. Data analysis included Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques and t-tests. The results revealed that ALT was positively related to student achievement. The experimental group who had significantly more ALT, had higher achievement gain scores than the control group who spent less ALT. However, the experimental group showed a significant between-group difference in only two of the eight skills. Exposu.re to quality ALT appears to have facilitated skill development. Sound planning for inclusion rather than exclusion (a logical progression in learning experiences, differentiation and formulating specific lesson objectives) is associated with ALT. Furthermore, the pedagogically active teacher holds students accountable for their learning in a structured environment. Prerequisites to quality ALT are teacher knowledge of the subject matter and streamlined class management: organization, active supervision and provision of a learning environment with maximum holding power.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die ondersoek was om die invloed van aktiewe leertyd (ALT) op die bewegingsontwikkeling (vaardigheid) van st. 6-meisies te bepaal. Die proefpersone (N =28) is ewekansig gekies en in 'n eksperimentele (n= 14) en kontrolegroep (n= 14) verdeel. Twee leerkragte, een vir elke groep, het die onderrig van 'n gimnastiekeenheid van nege lesse op identiese lesdoelwitte gebaseer. Geen beperkings is aan die beplanning- en onderrigstrategiee van die leerkragte gestel nie. Data is deur middel van bewegingstoetse en video-opnames van al die lesse van beide leerkragte ingesamel. Beide groepe is ten opsigte van agt basiese gimnastiekbewegings aan 'n voor-na-toetsing onderwerp. Die gedrag van teikenleerlinge is deur middel van 'n optekeninstrument ("recording instrument") sistematies waargeneem en gekodeer in tydeenhede. Die ses hoofgedragsvorme is Motoriese Betrokkenheid (ALT) , Kognitiewe Betrokkenheid, Sosiale Betrokkenheid, Affektiewe Betrokkenheid, Organisatoriese Betrokkenheid en Onbetrokkenheid. Analise van variansie-tegnieke en t-toetse is vir die ontleding van data toegepas. Die resultate onthul dat ALT positief met bewegingsprestasie verb and hou. Die eksperimentele groep wat aan betekenisvol meer ALT blootgestel was, toon 'n groter verbetering in vaardigheid as die kontrolegroep. Die eksperimentele groep demonstreer egter 'n betekenisvolle tussengroepverskil in slegs twee van die agt bewegings by die natoetsinggeleentheid. Kwaliteit-ALT blyk 'n sterker aanduiding van die verbetering in bewegingsvaardigheid as kwantiteit-ALT te wees. Deeglike beplanning wat geskoei is op die beginsel van insluiting en nie uitsluiting nie ('n logiese progressie in die doelwitte en middele, differensiasie en doelwitformulering) word met ALT geassosieer. Die pedagogies aktiewe leerkrag hou die leerlinge verantwoordbaar vir leerresultate binne 'n gestruktureerde omgewing. Die kennis van die leerkrag en behendige klasbestuur (organisasie, aktiewe supervisie en 'n leeromgewing met maksimum houkrag) is bepalend vir kwaliteit-ALT.

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