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Consistent phenological shifts in the making of a biodiversity hotspot : the Cape flora

dc.contributor.authorWarren, Ben H.
dc.contributor.authorBakker, Freek T.
dc.contributor.authorBellstedt, Dirk U.
dc.contributor.authorBytebier, Benny
dc.contributor.authorClaszen-Bockhoff, Regine
dc.contributor.authorDreyer, Leanne L.
dc.contributor.authorEdwards, Dawn
dc.contributor.authorForest, Felix
dc.contributor.authorGalley, Chloe
dc.contributor.authorHardy, Christopher R.
dc.contributor.authorLinder, H. Peter
dc.contributor.authorMuasya, A. Muthama
dc.contributor.authorMummenhoff, Klaus
dc.contributor.authorOberlander, Kenneth C.
dc.contributor.authorQuint, Marcus
dc.contributor.authorRichardson, James E.
dc.contributor.authorSavolainen, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorSchrire, Brian D.
dc.contributor.authorVan der Niet, Timotheus
dc.contributor.authorVerboom, G. Anthony
dc.contributor.authorYesson, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorHawkins, Julie A.
dc.date.accessioned2011-03-13T10:57:48Z
dc.date.available2011-03-13T10:57:48Z
dc.date.issued2011-02
dc.identifier.citationWarren, B.H. et al. 2011. Consistent phenological shifts in the making of a biodiversity hotspot : the Cape flora. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11(1):39.en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn1471-2148
dc.identifier.otherhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-39
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6399
dc.description.abstractABSTRACT: Background: The best documented survival responses of organisms to past climate change on short (glacial-interglacial) timescales are distributional shifts. Despite ample evidence on such timescales for local adaptations of populations at specific sites, the long-term impacts of such changes on evolutionary significant units in response to past climatic change have been little documented. Here we use phylogenies to reconstruct changes in distribution and flowering ecology of the Cape flora - South Africa's biodiversity hotspot - through a period of past (Neogene and Quaternary) changes in the seasonality of rainfall over a timescale of several million years. Results: Forty-three distributional and phenological shifts consistent with past climatic change occur across the flora, and a comparable number of clades underwent adaptive changes in their flowering phenology (9 clades; half of the clades investigated) as underwent distributional shifts (12 clades; two thirds of the clades investigated). Of extant Cape angiosperm species, 14-41% have been contributed by lineages that show distributional shifts consistent with past climate change, yet a similar proportion (14-55%) arose from lineages that shifted flowering phenology. Conclusions: Adaptive changes in ecology at the scale we uncover in the Cape and consistent with past climatic change have not been documented for other floras. Shifts in climate tolerance appear to have been more important in this flora than is currently appreciated, and lineages that underwent such shifts went on to contribute a high proportion of the flora's extant species diversity. That shifts in phenology, on an evolutionary timescale and on such a scale, have not yet been detected for other floras is likely a result of the method used; shifts in flowering phenology cannot be detected in the fossil record.en_ZA
dc.format.extent11 p. : ill.
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen_ZA
dc.subjectFlora -- South Africa -- Western Capeen_ZA
dc.subjectPhenologyen_ZA
dc.subjectBiodiversityen_ZA
dc.titleConsistent phenological shifts in the making of a biodiversity hotspot : the Cape floraen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.date.updated2011-02-25T13:25:05Z
dc.description.versionPublishers' version
dc.language.rfc3066en
dc.rights.holderWarren et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.en_ZA


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