Genetics of pathogenicity in Pyrenophora leaf diseases of barley

Campbell, Graham F. (Graham Findlay)
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Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Net blotch of barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres, is one of the most important diseases of this cereal in the south Western Cape Province of South Africa. This fungus exists as two different types (forms), namely a nettype and a spot-type that are distinguished by differential symptom expression on barley leaves. Based on this specific plant pathological difference a series of studies of agricultural importance were executed to investigate the effects of sexual recombination between these two types. In addition, studies were done to determine the difference between local net- and spot-type populations with regards to population structure and fungicide sensitivity. This dissertation therefore, consists of a collection of separate publications and as a result a certain degree of redundancy has been unavoidable. Recombination is one of the most important evolutionary forces involved with sexual reproduction. In plant-fungal agricultural ecosystems this may result in pathogenic fungal populations adapting more rapidly to control programs such as fungicide applications. The first section of the review in part 1 of this dissertation covers different aspects of sexual reproduction in ascomycetes, specifically focussing on mating-type genes, vegetative incompatibility and recombination. The major part of the review is then dedicated to various plant pathological aspects of P.teres, specifically addressing the differences between the two types, and in various cases highlighting the significance of sexual recombination within and between the net- and spot-type. Using morphological criteria for identification purposes there have been many conflicting reports concerning the identity of leaf spot isolates in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. In part 2, the correct identity was eventually achieved employing mating studies and molecular markers .: This was accomplished after single ascospores were obtained from pseudothecia after in vitro mating had occurred between a verified P. teres net-blotch isolate from Denmark and a representative Pyrenophora leaf spot isolate from South Africa. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and RAPD markers, recombination was demonstrated in the progeny that had DNA banding patterns different from the two parental isolates. Pathogenicity trials also confirmed that recombination had taken place during mating. Inoculations were conducted on the differential cultivars susceptible to the net-blotch and leaf spot forms. The two parents induced typical net-blotch or leaf spot symptoms whereas the progeny mostly induced a jagged spot symptom on each cultivar. Fungicide sensitivity tests using the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors showed that, due to recombination, some progeny could have increased resistance to these fungicides. Due to mating and subsequent recombination between a net blotch isolate of P. teres and a representative leaf spot isolate, it was concluded that the latter was P. teres f. maculata. Fifteen of the net-spot hybrid progeny (F1) produced from the mating study in Part 2 were screened in Part 3 to assess their viability and genetic stability. Hybrid progeny (F1) inoculated onto barley seedlings consisting of the cultivars Stirling (differentially susceptible to net-type isolates), B87/14 and Clipper (both differentially susceptible to spot-type isolates) produced intermediate symptoms on all cultivars. Axenic cultures (F1-1) isolated from foliar lesions, followed by repeated inoculation and isolation (F1-2) onto a healthy set of seedlings produced similar intermediate symptoms. RAPDs conducted with two 1Q-mer primers on all isolates of F1-1and F1-2progeny revealed profiles similar to those obtained for F1 isolates. RAPD molecular data, therefore, indicated that hybrid progeny of this net x spot mating were genetically stable after having been subjected to two repetitive inoculation and reisolation cycles. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) flanking the 5.8S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene and the 5' end partial histone-3 gene confirmed the genetic stability of the hybrid progeny. These results also indicated that the hybrid progeny produced consistent symptoms throughout the series of experiments, and maintained their virulence to the differential cultivars screened. Both types of P. teres are prevalent in the south Western Cape Province of South Africa, found on susceptible cultivars often grown within close proximity of each other. In Part 4, a net- and spot-type population were characterised in terms of their population structure using RAPD markers. Samples were collected from infected barley leaves from two separate quadrants in each field, the two quadrants positioned in corners of the fields, diagonal to one another. A total of 65 loci were produced of which 54 were polymorphic. Total gene diversities determined for all loci resulted in mean indices of 0.063 and 0.082 being obtained respectively for the net- and spottype populations. A coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gs) of 0.0149 was obtained between sites within populations while a coefficient (GT) of 0.63 was obtained between the two populations. Genotypic variation revealed 13 distinct multilocus genotypes (haplotypes) in the net-type population while there were 12 in the spot-type population. UPGMA cluster analysis done on the two populations together with six progeny from the mating between a netand spot-type isolate resulted in three main clusters being produced, one for each population and one for the progeny. One isolate collected from the nettype population also contained a unique spot-type RAPD fragment. This suggested that sexual recombination may be taking place between isolates of the net- and spot-type under field conditions. Fungicide application is the most important method used in the control of net blotch in South Africa. In Part 5 the fungicide sensitivities (ICsD values) of 89 monoconidial isolates (46 net-type and 43 spot-type) of P. teres to sterol demethylation inhibiting fungicides were determined, based on the inhibitory effect on radial mycelial growth. The fungicides evaluated were triadimenol, bromuconazole, flusilazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole. Both net- and spot-type isolates revealed strong resistance to triadimenol while flusilazole was shown to be the strongest inhibitor of fungal growth. Spot-type isolates showed a higher resistance than net-type isolates to all five fungicides screened. The ICsD values indicated significant differences between four of the fungicides (triadimenol, tebuconazole, flusilazole and propiconazole). The ICsD values between propiconazole and bromuconazole were not significant. This study suggested that spot-type isolates showed a higher degree of resistance to commercially used fungicides than net-type isolates. The overall conclusion of this study is that the spot-type of P. teres is the pathogen associated with leaf spots of barley in the south western Cape province of South Africa and not P. japonica as earlier reported. Together with the net-type, both types exist as genetically variable populations in this barley production region. Mating between the two types results in sexual progeny that are genetically stable. This implies that barley fields adjacent to one another in which either net- or spot-type susceptible cultivars are being cultivated may lead to sexual progeny being produced. This in turn may lead to an increased rate at which fungal populations may become resistant to commercially used fungicides. It is furthermore suggested that an alternative fungicide seed treatment is used instead of triadimenol due to high resistance of P. teres to this fungicide.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Netvlek op gars is een van die belangrikste siektes van hierdie graansoort in die suidelike deel van die Westelike Kaapprovinsie. Dié siekte word veroorsaak deur die swam Pyrenophora teres. Hierdie swam kom voor as twee verskillende tipes, naamlik 'n net-tipe en 'n kol-tipe wat onderskei word op grand van die voorkoms van hulle simptome op garsblare. Hierdie planpatologiese verskil in ag genome, is 'n reeks studies van landboukundige waarde uitgevoer om die effek van geslagtelike rekombinasie tussen die twee tipes te ondersoek. Daarbenewens is ook studies uitgevoer om om die verskil te bepaal tussen plaaslike net- en koltipe populasies ten opsigte van populasiestruktuur en fungisiedsensitiwiteit. Hierdie verhandeling bestaan dus uit 'n versameling afsonderlike publikasies en as gevolg daarvan is daar onvermydelik'n mate van oorvleueling. Rekombinasie is een van die belangrikste evolusionêre kragte betrokke by geslagtelike voortplanting. In plant-swam landboukundige ekostelsels kan dit veroorsaak dat patogene swampopulasies vinniger aanpas by beheerpragramme soos fungisiedtoediening. Die eerste gedeelte in deel 1 van hierdie verhandeling dek die verskillende aspekte van geslagtelike voortplanting van ascomycetes, met spesifieke verwysing na paringstipe gene, vegetatiewe onverenigbaarheid en rekombinasie. Die grootste gedeelte van die oorsig word gewyaan verskeie plantpatologiese aspekte van P. teres,en wys veralop die verskille tussen die twee tipes. In verskeie gevalle word die betekenis van geslagsrekombinasie binne en tussen die net- en koltipe uitgelig. Deur morfologiese kenmerke vir identifikasiedoeleindes te gebruik, is daar baie teenstrydige verslae rakende die identifikasie van blaarvlekisolate in die Westlike Kaapprovinsie van Suid-Afrika. In deel 2 is die korrekte identifikasie eventueel verkry deur gebruik te maak van paringstudies en molekulêre merkers. Dit is bereik nadat enkel ascospore verkry is uit pseudothecia gevorm na in vitro paring plaasgevind het tussen 'n bevestigde P. teres netvlek isolaat uit Denemarke en 'n verteenwoordigende Pyrenophora blaarvlekisolaat van Suid- Afrika. Deur gebruik te maak van versterkte fragmentlengte polimorfisme [AFLP] en RAPD merkers, is rekombinasie gedemonstreer in die nasate wat DNA bandpatrone gehad het wat verskil het van dié van die "ouer" isolate. Patogenisiteitstoetse het ook bevestig dat rekombinasie tydens paring plaasgevind het. Inokulasies is uitgevoer op die verskillende cultivars wat vatbaar is vir die netvlek en blaarvlek vorme. Die twee ouers het tipiese netvlek of blaarvlek simptome veroorsaak, terwyl die nasate hoekige vlekke veroorsaak het op elke cultivar. Toetse vir fungisiedsensitiwiteit deur gebruik van die ergosterol biosintese inhibeerders het gewys dat a.g.v. rekombinasie sekere nasate verhoogde weerstand teen hierdie fungisiedes het. As gevolg van paring en daaropvolgende rekombinasie tussen 'n netvlek isolaat van P. teres en 'n verteenwoordigende blaarvlek isolaat is afgelei dat laasgenoemde P. teres f. maculata is. Vyftien van die netvlek hibried nakomelinge (F1) verkry van die paringstudie in deel 2 is ondersoek in deel 3 om hul lewensvatbaarheid en genetiese stabiliteit te bepaal. Hibried nasate (F1) geïnokuleer op garssaailinge bestaande uit die volgende cultivars: Stirling (soms vatbaar vir net-tipe isolate) , B87/14 en Clipper (albei soms vatbaar vir kol-tipe isolate) het intermediêre simptome op al die cultivars veroorsaak. Akseniese kulture (F1-1) geïsoleer uit blaarletsels gevolg deur herhaalde inokulasie en isolasie (F1-2) op 'n gesonde stel saailinge het dieselfde intermediêre simptome veroorsaak. RAPDs uitgevoer met twee 10-mer inleiers op al die isolate van F1-1 en F1-2 nasate het profiele opgelewer soortgelyk aan dié wat vir F1 isolate verkry is. RAPD molekulêre data het dus gewys dat die hibried nasate van hierdie net x kol paring geneties stabiel was nadat dit onderwerp is aan twee inokulasie en reïsolasie siklusse. Genetiese stabiliteit van die hibried nageslag is bevestig deur filogenetiese analise van die DNA volgorde van die interne getranskribeerde spasieerders (ITS1 en ITS2) reg langs die 5.8S nukluêre ribosomale RNA geen en die 5' end gedeeltelike histoon-3 geen. Hierdie resultate het ook gewys dat die hibried nasate konstante simptome getoon het tydens die hele reeks eksperimente en hulle virulensie behou het vir die kultivars wat getoets is. Beide tipes van P. teres kom algemeen voor in die suidelike deel van die Westelike Kaapprovinsie en word gevind op vatbare cultivars wat dikwels naby mekaar groei. In deel 4 is 'n net- en kol-tipe populasie gekarakteriseer in terme van hulle populasiestruktuur deur gebruik van RAPD merkers. Monsters is versamel van geïnfekteerde garsblare van twee aparte kwadrante in elke saailand. Die twee kwadrante is geplaas in die hoeke van die saailand, diagonaal tot mekaar. 'n Totaal van 65 lokusse is gevorm, waarvan 54 polimorfies was. Die algehele genetiese verskeidenheid bepaal vir alle lokusse, het gelei tot gemiddelde indekse van 0.063 en 0.082 soos gevind vir die net- en kol-tipe populasies. 'n Koëffisiënt van genetiese differensiasie (Gs ) van 0.0149 is gevind tussen gebiede tussen populasies, terwyl 'n koëffisiënt (GT) van 0.63 gevind is tussen die twee populasies. Genotipiese variasie het 13 duidelike multilokus genotipes (haplotipes) getoon in die net-tipe populasie, terwyl daar twaalf was in die kol-tipe populasie. UPGMA groeperingsanalises wat gedoen is op die twee populasies tesame met ses nasate van die paring van 'n net- en koltipe isolaat het tot gevolg gehad dat drie hoof groepe gevorm is, een vir elke populasie en een vir die nasate. Een isolaat wat versamel is, van die net-tipe populasie het 'n unieke kol-tipe RAPD fragment bevat. Dit wys daarop dat geslagtelike rekombinasie in veldomstandighede mag voorkom tussen isolate van die net- en kol-tipe. Fungisiedtoediening is die belangrikste metode wat gebruik word om netvlek in Suid-Afrika te beheer. In deel 5 is die fungisiedsensitiwteit (Ieso waardes) van 89 enkelkonidiale isolate (46 net-tipe en 43 kol-tipe) van P. teres teen sterol demetielasie inhiberende fungisiedes bepaal, op die basis van die onderdrukkende effek op die radiale groei van die miselium. Die volgende fungisiedes is geëvalueer: triadimenol, bromuconazole, flusilazole, propiconazole en tebuconazole. Beide net- en kol-tipe isolate het 'n sterk weerstand teen triadimenol openbaar, terwyl flusilazole gevind is as die sterkste onderdrukker van swamgroei. Kol-tipe isolate het 'n hoër weerstand as die net-tipe isolate teen al vyf fungisiedes wat getoets is, gehad. Die lesowaardes het aangedui dat daar beduidende verskille tussen vier van die fungisiedes IS (triadimenol, tebuconazole, flusilazole en propiconazole). Die leso waardes tussen propiconazole en bromuconazole was nie beduidend nie. Die gevolgtrekking van hierdie studie is dus dat die kol-tipe isolate 'n hoër graad van weerstand teen kommersiëel gebruikte fungisiedes as die net-tipe isolate gehad het. Die algehele gevolgtrekking van hierdie studie is dat die kol-tipe van P. teres, die patogeen is wat geassosieer word met blaarvlekke op gars in die suidwestelike Kaapprovinsie van Suid-Afrika, en nie P. japonica soos voorheen gerapporteer nie. Tesame met die net-tipe, kom altwee tipes voor as geneties veranderlike populasies in hierdie gars verbouingstreek. Paring tussen die twee tipes lei tot geslagtelike nasate wat geneties stabiel is. Dit impliseer dat aangrensende garsvelde waarop net- óf kol-tipe vatbare kultivars verbou word, mag lei tot die produksie van geslagtelike nasate. Dit kan weer lei tot 'n verhoogde tempo waarteen swampopulasies weerstandbiedend teenoor kommersiële fungisiedes raak. Daar word verder ook voorgestel dat alternatiewe fungisied saadbehandelings gebruik word in plaas van triadimenol as gevolg van verhoogde weerstand van P. teres teenoor laasgenoemde.
Dissertation (PhD(Agric)) -- University of Stellenbosch, 2001.
Pyrenophora teres -- Genetics, Fungicide resistance, Fungal diseases of plants -- Pathogenesis, Barley net-spot blotch disease, Dissertations -- Plant pathology, Theses -- Plant pathology