Wax characterisation by instrumental analysis

Webber, Glenda Vanessa
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Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Various companies produce waxes, which are used extensively in various applications, either as produced or as chemically or physically modified value-added products. They are used in the traditional candle industry and applications including hot melt adhesives, inks, plastics, polishes and emulsions for rust prevention or fruit coating. Insight into the properties of these waxes is required to assist the applications chemist in understanding the role of the wax component in a specific formulation. Analytical techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), rheometry, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) and infra-red spectroscopy (IR) were used to characterise Fischer Tropsch, polyethylene, natural and petroleum waxes. Property profiles were formulated by integrating the results from the various techniques. The results of traditional wax analyses (e.g. congealing point, melting point, penetration, density and viscosity) were also correlated to relevant analytical results obtained from the instrumental techniques. Structure-property relationships have been proposed.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie maatskappye vervaardig wasse, wat in menige toepassings gebruik word - of direk, of as chemies- of fisies- veranderde produkte van hoër waarde. Benewens die tradisionele kersbedryf, word die wasse in toepassings soos warmsmeltkleefmiddels, ink, plastiek, roeswerende- en vrugtebedekkings- emulsies en politoere gebruik. Wetenskaplikes betrokke by die formuleering van wasse vir verskillende toepassings sal baat vind by beter inligting van waseienskappe en die rol van waskomponente in formulasies. Tegnieke, bv. differensialeskandeerkalorimetrie (DSC), termogravimetrie (TG), reologie, gelpermeasiechromotografie (GPC), hoëtemperatuurgaschromatografie (HTGC) en infrarooispektroskopie (IR), is gebruik om Fischer Tropsch-, polietileen-, petroleum- en natuurlike wasse te karakteriseer. Profiele van waseienskappe is geformuleer deur die integrasie van die data verkry van die verskillende analitiese tegnieke. Die resultate van tradisionële wasanalises (bv. stolpunt, smeltpunt, penetrasie, digtheid, viskositieit en olie-inhoud) word ook in verband gebring met die resultate van die instrumentele analises. Verbande tussen struktuur en waseienskappe word ook voorgestel.
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.
Waxes, Dissertations -- Polymer science, Theses -- Polymer science