• Widespread use of incorrect PCR ramp rate negatively impacts multidrug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis (MTBDRplus) 

      Derendinger, B.; De Vos, M.; Nathavitharana, R. R.; Dolby, T.; Simpson, J. A.; Van Helden, P. D.; Warren, Robin M.; Theron, G. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The scale-up of rapid drug resistance testing for TB is a global priority. MTBDRplus is a WHO-endorsed multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB PCR assay with suboptimal sensitivities and high indeterminate rates on ...
    • Using routinely collected laboratory data to identify high rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis burden communities in the Western Cape Province, South Africa : a retrospective spatiotemporal analysis 

      McIntosh, Avery I.; Jenkins, Helen E.; White, Laura F.; Barnard, Marinus; Thomson, Dana R.; Dolby, Tania; Simpson, John; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Kleinman, Mary B.; Ragan, Elizabeth J.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Murray, Megan B.; Warren, Robin M.; Jacobson, Karen R. (Public Library of Science, 2018)
      Background: South Africa has the highest tuberculosis incidence globally (781/100,000), with an estimated 4.3% of cases being rifampicin resistant (RR). Control and elimination strategies will require detailed spatial ...
    • Use of butorphanol and diprenorphine to counter respiratory impairment in the immobilised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) 

      Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea; Hofmeyr, Markus; Buss, Peter; Miller, Michele; Haw, Anna (AOSIS, 2018)
      Opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory impairment in the white rhinoceros. It has therefore been attempted in the field to reverse this impairment with the use of opioid agonist-antagonists, such as ...
    • Unexpected genomic and phenotypic diversity of mycobacterium africanum lineage 5 affects drug resistance, protein secretion, and immunogenicity 

      Ates, Louis S.; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Warren, Robin M.; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Majlessi, Laleh; Van Heijs, Jeroen W. J.; Brossier, Florence; Brosch, Roland (Oxford University Press, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium africanum consists of Lineages L5 and L6 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and causes human tuberculosis in specific regions of Western Africa, but is generally not transmitted ...
    • Susceptibility to tuberculosis is associated with PI3K-dependent increased mobilization of neutrophils 

      Leisching, Gina R. (Frontiers Media, 2018)
      Neutrophilia is a condition commonly observed in patients with late-stage tuberculosis, but evidence suggests that increased neutrophil influx begins early after infection in susceptible hosts and functions to promote a ...
    • A serum circulating miRNA signature for short-term risk of progression to active tuberculosis among household contacts 

      Duffy, Fergal J.; Thompson, Ethan; Downing, Katrina; Suliman, Sara; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Boom, W. Henry; Thiel, Bonnie; Weiner III, January; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Dover, Drew; Tabb, David L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Tromp, Gerard; Scriba, Thomas J.; Zak, Daniel E.; Walzl, Gerhard; GC6-74 Consortium (Frontiers Media, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Biomarkers that predict who among recently Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-exposed individuals will progress to active tuberculosis are urgently needed. Intracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the host ...
    • Rv1460, a SufR homologue, is a repressor of the suf operon in mycobacterium tuberculosis 

      Willemse, Danicke; Weber, Brandon; Masino, Laura; Warren, Robin M.; Adinolfi, Salvatore; Pastore, Annalisa; Williams, Monique J. (Public Library of Science, 2018)
      Iron–sulphur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous co-factors which require multi-protein systems for their synthesis. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the Rv1460-Rv1461-Rv1462-Rv1463-csd-Rv1465-Rv1466 operon (suf operon) encodes ...
    • Rutin as a potent antioxidant : implications for neurodegenerative disorders 

      Enogieru, Adaze Bijou; Haylett, William; Hiss, Donavon Charles; Bardien, Soraya; Ekpo, Okobi Eko (Hindawi, 2018)
      A wide range of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and prion diseases, share common mechanisms such as neuronal loss, apoptosis, mitochondrial ...
    • PD-1 expression on mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells is associated with bacterial load in human tuberculosis 

      Day, Cheryl L.; Abrahams, Deborah A.; Bunjun, Rubina; Stone, Lynnett; De Kock, Marwou; Walzl, Gerhard; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Burgers, Wendy A.; Hanekom, Willem A. (Frontiers Media, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Persistent antigen stimulation in chronic infections has been associated with antigen-specific T cell dysfunction and upregulation of inhibitory receptors, including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). ...
    • Patients with concurrent tuberculosis and diabetes have a pro-atherogenic plasma lipid profile 

      Vrieling, Frank; Ronacher, Katharina; Kleynhans, Leanie; Van Den Akker, Erik; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Joosten, Simone A. (Elsevier, 2018)
      Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for development of tuberculosis (TB), however the underlyingmolecular foundations are unclear. Since lipids play a central role in the development of both ...
    • New insights on water buffalo genomic diversity and post-domestication migration routes from medium density SNP chip data 

      Colli, Licia; Milanesi, Marco; Vajana, Elia; Iamartino, Daniela; Bomba, Lorenzo; Puglisi, Francesco; Del Corvo, Marcello; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Ahmed, Sahar S. E.; Herrera, Jesus R. V.; Cruz, Libertado; Zhang, Shujun; Liang, Aixin; Hua, Guohua; Yang, Liguo; Hao, Xingjie; Zuo, Fuyuan; Lai, Song-Jia; Wang, Shuilian; Liu, Ruyu; Gong, Yundeng; Mokhber, Mahdi; Mao, Yongjiang; Guan, Feng; Vlaic, Augustin; Vlaic, Bogdan; Ramunno, Luigi; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Ahmad, Ali; Soysal, Ihsan; Unal, Emel O.; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Garcia, Jose F.; Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Baruselli, Pietro S.; Amaral, Maria E. J.; Parnpai, Rangsun; Drummond, Marcela G.; Galbusera, Peter; Burton, James; Hoal, Eileen; Yusnizar, Yulnawati; Sumantri, Cece; Moioli, Bianca; Valentini, Alessio; Stella, Alessandra; Williams, John L.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo (Frontiers Media, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The domestic water buffalo is native to the Asian continent but through historical migrations and recent importations, nowadays has a worldwide distribution. The two types of water buffalo, i.e., river ...
    • Neutrophils : innate effectors of TB resistance? 

      Kroon, Elouise E.; Coussens, Anna K.; Kinnear, Craig; Orlova, Marianna; Moller, Marlo; Seeger, Allison; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Hoal, Eileen G.; Schurr, Erwin (Frontiers Media, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Certain individuals are able to resist Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection despite persistent and intense exposure. These persons do not exhibit adaptive immune priming as measured by tuberculin skin ...
    • Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in chronic infections 

      Dorhoi, Anca; Du Plessis, Nelita (Frontiers Media, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Heterogeneous populations of myeloid regulatory cells (MRC), including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, are found in cancer and infectious diseases. The inflammatory environment ...
    • Modulation of inflammatory cytokines and islet morphology as therapeutic mechanisms of Basella alba in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 

      Arokoyo, Dennis S.; Oyeyipo, Ibukun P.; Du Plessis, Stefan S.; Chegou, Novel N.; Aboua, Yapo G. (Korean Society of Toxicology, 2018)
      The mechanism of the previously reported antidiabetic effect of Basella alba is unknown. This study investigated the role of B. alba aqueous leaf extract in the modulation of inflammatory cytokines and islet morphology ...
    • Measuring antigen-specific responses in Mycobacterium bovis-infected warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) using the intradermal tuberculin test 

      Roos, Eduard O.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter; Hausler, Guy A.; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D. C.; De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Miller, Michele A. (BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2018)
      Background: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has previously been diagnosed in warthogs and infection can be highly prevalent (> 30%) in endemic areas. Thus, warthogs could potentially be an ...
    • Margarida Genetic diversity and potential routes of transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Mozambique 

      Machado, Adelina; Rito, Teresa; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Muhate, Nuelma; Maxhuza, Gabriel; Macuamule, Custodia; Moiane, Ivania; Macucule, Baltazar; Marranangumbe, Angelica Suzana; Baptista, Jorge; Manguele, Joaquim; Koivula, Tuija; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Warren, Robin Mark; Kallenius, Gunilla; Van Helden, Paul; Correia-Neves, Margarida (Public Library of Science, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal ...
    • IMPUTOR : phylogenetically aware software for imputation of errors in next-generation sequencing 

      Jobin, Matthew; Schurz, Haiko; Henn, Brenna M. (Oxford University Press, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: We introduce IMPUTOR, software for phylogenetically aware imputation of missing haploid nonrecombining genomic data. Targeted for next-generation sequencing data, IMPUTOR uses the principle of parsimony ...
    • IL-22 : an underestimated player in natural resistance to tuberculosis? 

      Ronacher, Katharina; Sinha, Roma; Cestari, Michelle (Frontiers Media, 2018)
      ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Approximately 10% of individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) develop active tuberculosis (TB) during their lifetime. Although it is well recognized that T-helper 1 immune ...
    • Genetic diversity and potential routes of transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Mozambique 

      Machado, Adelina; Rito, Teresa; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Muhate, Nuelma; Maxhuza, Gabriel; Macuamule, Custodia; Moiane, Ivania; Macucule, Baltazar; Marranangumbe, Angelica Suzana; Baptista, Jorge; Manguele, Joaquim; Koivula, Tuija; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Warren, Robin Mark; Kallenius, Gunilla; Van Helden, Paul; Correia-Neves, Margarida (Public Library of Science, 2018)
      Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to ...
    • Generation and characterization of thiol-deficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants 

      Emani, C. Sao; Williams, M. J.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Taylor, M. J. C.; Carolis, C.; Wiid, I. J.; Baker, B. (Nature Research, 2018)
      Mycothiol (MSH) and ergothioneine (ERG) are thiols able to compensate for each other to protect mycobacteria against oxidative stress. Gamma-glutamylcysteine (GGC), another thiol and an intermediate in ERG biosynthesis has ...