Pome fruit trees as alternative hosts of grapevine trunk disease pathogens
Thesis (MScAgric (Plant Pathology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A survey was undertaken on apple and pear trees in the Western Cape Province to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with reference to trunk diseases occurring on grapevine. Grapevine trunk diseases cause the gradual decline and dieback of vines resulting in a decrease in the vine’s capability to carry and ripen fruit. In recent years, viticulture has been expanding into several of the well established pome fruit growing areas. The presence of trunk pathogens in pome fruit orchards may affect the health of the pome fruit trees as well as cause a threat to young vineyards planted in close proximity to these potential sources of viable inoculum. Several genera containing species known to be involved in trunk disease on pome fruit and grapevine were found, including Diplodia, Neofusicoccum, Eutypa, Phaeoacremonium and Phomopsis. Diplodia seriata and D. pyricolum, were isolated along with N. australe and N. vitifusiforme. Four Phaeoacremonium species, P. aleophilum, P. iranianum, P. mortoniae and P. viticola, two Phomopsis species linked to clades identified in former studies as Phomopsis sp. 1 and Phomopsis sp. 7, and Eutypa lata were found. In addition, Paraconiothyrium brasiliense and Pa. variabile, and an unidentified Pyrenochaetalike species were found. Of these the Phaeoacremonium species have not been found on pear wood and it is a first report of P. aleophilum occurring on apple. This is also a first report of the Phomopsis species and Eutypa lata found occurring on pome trees in South Africa Two new coelomycetous fungi were also found including a Diplodia species, Diplodia pyricolum sp. nov., and a new genus, Pyrenochaetoides gen. nov. with the type species, Pyrenochaetoides mali sp. nov., were described from necrotic pear and apple wood. The combined ITS and EF1-α phylogeny supported the new Diplodia species, which is closely related to D. mutila and D. africana. The new species is characterised by conidia that become pigmented and 1-septate within the pycnidium, and that are intermediate in size between the latter two Diplodia species. Phylogenetic inference of the SSU of the unknown coelomycete provided bootstrap support (100%) for a monophyletic clade unrelated to known genera, and basal to Phoma and its relatives. Morphologically the new genus is characterised by pycnidial with elongated necks that lack setae, cylindrical conidiophores that are seldomly branched at the base, and Phoma-like conidia. The phylogenetic results combined with its dissimilarity from genera allied to Phoma, lead to the conclusion that this species represents a new genus. A pathogenicity trial was undertaken to examine the role of these species on apple, pear and grapevine shoots. N. australe caused the longest lesions on grapevine shoots, while Pyrenochaetoides mali, Pa. variabile, D. seriata and P. mortoniae caused lesions that were significantly longer than the control inoculations. On pears, D. pyricolum and N. australe caused the longest lesions, followed by D. seriata and E. lata. On apples, the longest lesions were caused by N. australe and P. iranianum. D. seriata, D. pyricolum, E. lata, N. vitifusiforme, Pa. brasiliense, P. aleophilum and P. mortoniae also caused lesions on apple that were significantly longer than the control. The study demonstrated that close cultivation of grapevine to apple and pear orchards may have inherent risks in terms of the free availability of viable inoculum of trunk disease pathogens.
No Afrikaans abstract available.