An integrated model of proactive behaviour : how to thrive in the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Botha, Jana-Mari (2022-04)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2022.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: With the commencement of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the discipline of Industrial Psychology plays a critical role in determining how employees and organisations can survive and thrive in the new and rapidly changing world of work. Proactive behaviour refers to self-initiated, future-focused, and change-orientated behaviour in the workplace. Proactive behaviour leads to career and organisational success and the absence of proactivity can result in employees and organisations becoming irrelevant and getting left behind. Given the various positive individual and organisational outcomes of proactivity, it is no longer deemed as an optional enhancement, but rather a necessity to remain competitive in the new world of work. This study therefore focused on determining which factors contribute to the development of proactive employees. After a review of literature, various person and situational factors were identified, including Job characteristics (Task identity and Job autonomy), Conscientiousness, Grit, Role-breadth self-efficacy, Transformational leadership, and an Innovative organisational culture. The study utilised an ex post facto correlational research design to test the relationships between the variables. The target population were full time South African employees, and a non-probability sample was used. A sample of n = 257 completed the questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the measurement scales utilised in the questionnaire were examined through item and factor analysis. All measurement scales yielded satisfactory reliability coefficients. Furthermore, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was utilised to evaluate the structural model. The close fit null hypothesis was rejected, but the overall basket of evidence indicated satisfactory fit. The results confirmed the direct effects of Role-breadth self-efficacy, Grit, and Innovative organisational culture on Proactive behaviour as well as the indirect effects of Transformational leadership (though Innovative organisational culture), Conscientiousness (though Grit) and Job characteristics (through Role-breadth self-efficacy). The results did not support the direct effects of Transformational leadership and Job characteristics on Proactive behaviour, nor the effect of Transformational leadership on Role-breadth self-efficacy. This study contributes to research on how to develop Proactive behaviour within employees and provides recommendations for future research and organisational interventions. With further exploration of the antecedents identified, the discipline of Industrial Psychology can expand its body of knowledge in terms of how to equip employees and organisations to remain competitive during the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Met die begin van die Vierde Industriële Revolusie speel die Bedryfsielkunde dissipline 'n kritieke rol in die identifisering van hoe werknemers en organisasies kan oorleef en floreer in die nuwe en konstante veranderende werkswêreld. Proaktiewe gedrag verwys na self-geïnisieerde, toekomsgerigte en veranderingsgerigte gedrag in die werkplek. Proaktiewe gedrag lei tot loopbaan- en organisatoriese sukses en die afwesigheid van proaktiwiteit veroorsaak dat werknemers en organisasies irrelevant raak en agterbly. Gegewe die positiewe individuele en organisatoriese uitkomstes van proaktiwiteit, word Proaktiewe gedrag nie meer as ‘n opsionele verbetering beskou nie, maar eerder as 'n noodsaaklikheid om mededingend te bly in die nuwe werkswêreld. Die doel van hierdie studie was dus om te bepaal watter faktore bydra tot die ontwikkeling van proaktiewe werknemers. 'n Oorsig van die literatuur het gelei tot die identifisering van verskillende persoonlike- en situationelefaktore naamlik Werkskenmerke, Pligsgetrouheid, Deursettingsvermoë, Rolbreedte selfdoeltreffendheid, Transformerende leierskap en 'n Innoverende organisatoriese kultuur. Die studie het van ‘n ex post facto korrelatiewe navorsingsontwerp gebruik gemaak om die verwantskappe tussen die veranderlikes te toets. Die teikenpopulasie het voltydse Suid-Afrikaanse werknemers behels en 'n onwaarskynlikheidsteekproef was gebruik. 'n Steekproef van n = 257 het die vraelys ingevul. Die psigometriese eienskappe van die metingskale wat gebruik was in die vraelys, is deur middel van item- en faktorontleding ondersoek. Alle metingskale het bevredigende betroubaarheidskoëffisiënte opgelewer. Vir die evaluering van die strukturele model, is Strukturele Vergelyksmodellering (SVM) gebruik. Alhoewel die nulhipotese van benaderde passing verwerp is, is daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat redelike modelpassing verkry is. Ondersteuning is gevind vir die direkte effek van Rol-breedte selfdoeltreffendheid, Deurstettingsvermoë en Innoverende organisatoriese kultuur op Proaktiewe gedrag, sowel as die indirekte invloed van Transformerende leierskap (deur middel van Innoverende organisatoriese kultuur), Pligsgetrouheid (deur middel van Deursettingsvermoë) en Werkskenmerke (deur middel van Rolbreedte selfdoeltreffendheid). Die resultate ondersteun nie die direkte effek van Transformerende leierskap en Werkskenmerke op Proaktiewe gedrag, sowel as Transformasionele leierskap op Rol-breedte selfdoeltreffendheid nie. Hierdie studie dra by tot navorsing oor hoe om Proaktiewe gedrag by werknemers te ontwikkel, en maak aanbevelings vir toekomstige navorsing en organisatoriese interventies. Die bestek van kennis waaroor die Bedryfsielkunde dissipline beskik, spesifiek in verband met hoe om werknemers en organisasies toe te rus om mededingend te bly tydens die Vierde Industriële Revolusie, kan dus verbreed word met die verdere ondersoek van die voorlopers van Proaktiewe gedrag wat geïdentifiseer was in hierdie studie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/124912
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