• China in a global world 

      Liebenberg, Ian; Van der Merwe, Justin (African Sun Media, 2020)
      This chapter provides an overview of the growth of China as a political, military and economic power since its emergence as an independent communist state in 1949. China became a notable political force during the era of ...
    • Colombia - not so unusual after all : a case study on the transnational making of the boundary between 'defence' and 'public security' 

      Viana, Manuela Trindade (African Sun Media, 2020)
      Colombia is often mentioned as an anomaly within the expected framing of defence and public security, an anomaly that arises from a faulty division of labour between the police and the military. In this chapter, I offer ...
    • Cuba's defence diplomacy : hard and soft power, 1959‑2018 

      Kruijt, Dirk (African Sun Media, 2020)
      Cuba, a country with eleven million people, played a significant military and development role from the 1960s to the late 1980s, and is still an influential donor country. Its reputation was built on support to revolutionary ...
    • Epilogue 

      Liebenberg, Ian; Kruijt, Dirk; Paranjpe, Shrikant (African Sun Media, 2020)
      An astute observer of international politics, in following global events unfolding over the past 50 years, remarked not so much tongue-in-cheek that the fallacy of a unipolar world was evident for decades including during ...
    • National security in complex times : the South African military dimension 

      Ramokgadi, Shadrack; Beukes, Tobie; Liebenberg, Ian (African Sun Media, 2020)
      Having returned to the international gallery of nations in 1996 after its apartheid pariah status was lifted, South Africa had to adjust its defence posture, defence diplomacy, and general national security framework to ...
    • On controversies, battles, raids and elusive truth : opposing perspectives on Cassinga, 1978 

      Liebenberg, Ian (Faculty of Humanities, University of the Free State, 2019)
      The South African attack in 1978 on Cassinga, an alleged South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO) base during the ‘Border War’, remains highly controversial. For some, Operation Reindeer, as it was called, was an ...
    • South Africa's Defence Diplomacy in Africa 

      Liebenberg, Ian; Steenkamp-Fonseca, Raymond (African Sun Media, 2020)
      South Africa’s defence posture in Africa changed radically between 1950 and 2018. From a garrison-minded state mired in diplomatic isolation, the country ‘returned to Africa’ following its negotiated transition to democracy. ...
    • Venezuela's defence diplomacy under Chávez and Maduro (1999-2018) 

      Kruijt, Dirk (African Sun Media, 2020)
      Between the 1950s and the late 1980s, Venezuela’s economy and welfare attracted many migrants. An economic crisis, subsequent mass uprising and riots, and brutal repression by the armed forces was a watershed. Mid‑career ...