Obesity and other nutrition related abnormalities in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) participants
CITATION: Ebrahim, Z., Moosa, M. R. & Blaauw, R. 2019. Obesity and other nutrition related abnormalities in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) participants. Nutrients, 12(12):3608, doi:10.3390/nu12123608.
The original publication is available at http://www.mdpi.com
Publication of this article was funded by the Stellenbosch University Open Access Fund
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. Undernutrition has been prevalent amongst end stage CKD patients, with limited data on the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of CKD patients using various methods sensitive to over and under-nutrition. Stage 3 to 5 CKD patients (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) attending a pre-dialysis clinic in Cape Town, were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included infectious and autoimmune conditions. Sociodemographic, clinical and biochemical data were collected, and anthropometric measurements were performed. Dietary intake was measured with a quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 was used for statistical analysis. Seventy participants, with mean age of 41.8 ± 11.8 years, 52.9% females and 47.1% males were enrolled. Participants enrolled mainly had stage 5 kidney failure. Thirty percent were overweight (21) and 25 (36%) were obese, 22 (60%) of females were overweight and obese, while 13 (39.4%) of males were predominantly normal weight. Abdominal obesity was found in 42 (60%) of participants, mainly in females. Undernutrition prevalence was low at 3%. Dietary assessment showed a high sugar and protein intake. There was a high prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in CKD stage 35 patients, with unhealthy dietary intake and other nutritional abnormalities.