Food preservative capabilities of grape (vitis vinifera) and clementinemandarin (citrus reticulata) by-products extracts in South Africa
CITATION: Pfukwa, T. M., et al. 2019. Food preservative capabilities of grape (vitis vinifera) and clementinemandarin (citrus reticulata) by-products extracts in South Africa. Sustainability, 11(6):1746, doi:10.3390/su11061746.
The original publication is available at http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
The drive towards sustainable food systems coupled with increased consumer sophistication have prompted innovation in waste valorization. Grape and citrus processing by-products, abundant in the Mediterranean and tropical regions, respectively, are expanding and are sustainable sources of bioactive phytochemicals that can be used as natural preservatives for foods. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of extracts from grape pomace (GPE), seeds (GSE), and clementine mandarin peel and pulp (MPE) grown in South Africa were analyzed. Total phenols and carotenoids were highest in GPE followed by GSE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). Flavonoids and anthocyanins were higher (p ≤ 0.05) in GPE and GSE compared to MPE. The GSE had the highest proanthocyanidins content followed by GPE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). Ascorbic acid was only detected in MPE, which also had the highest titratable acidity and lowest pH values (p ≤ 0.05). The GSE had the highest antioxidant potency composite index followed by GPE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). The order of antimicrobial activity of the extracts was MPE > GSE > GPE (p ≤ 0.05). Current findings show that GSE is a potential antioxidant while MPE holds promise as an antimicrobial for the food industry.