Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the prevention of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among overweight and obese adults in Manzini, Eswatini : a cross-sectional study
Thesis (MMed)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.
ENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Being overweight or obese is one of the strongest risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Eswatini has a high prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and half of its adults are either overweight or obese. However, there is a paucity of data on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the prevention of type 2 diabetes in people at risk in Eswatini. This study aims to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus among overweight and obese adults presenting at an urban outpatient clinic in Manzini, Eswatini. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults who were either overweight or obese attending the clinic was carried out. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus were assessed using a validated researcher administered questionnaire. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were compared between overweight and obese participants. In addition, the correlation between knowledge, attitudes and practices was evaluated using a correlation matrix. Results: A total of 105 participants, with a mean age of 35.2 (SD 10.7) years participated in the study. Of these, 55 (52.4%) and 50 (47.6%) were overweight and obese, respectively. The majority of the participants showed acceptable knowledge levels, with 61% of the participants having good knowledge and 30% excellent knowledge. Participants showed positive attitudes towards diabetes prevention, 69.5% of participants had satisfactory attitudes, 21.0% had excellent attitudes and 9.5% had neutral attitudes towards the prevention of type two diabetes mellitus. Practices were generally poor with only 33.3% meeting the World Health Organisation recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. Just over half (53.0%) of participants who met the criteria for screening had screened for diabetes. Dietary practices were poor with just over a third (36.2%) of participants meeting the World Health Organisation recommended daily vegetable and/or fruit intake of five servings a day and 85.7% exceeding the World Health Organisation daily recommended limit of sugar intake. There were no significant differences between participants who were overweight and those who were obese in their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was a significant, positive correlation between total knowledge scores and total attitude scores (r= 0.42, p<0.01). Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults visiting the outpatient clinic had satisfactory knowledge and attitude levels towards the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Practices towards prevention were generally poor with few participants meeting the World Health Organisation recommendations for physical activity and fruit and/or vegetable daily intake. Just over half of the eligible participants had screened for diabetes prior to the study. In addition to information, interventions are needed to motivate patients at high risk to adopt healthier dietary and physical activity practices.
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