Responding to Boko Haram and Al-Shabaab : a critique of the African Unions counter-terrorism strategies

Hatto, Anelisiwe (2020-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Terrorism, in all its forms and manifestations, continues to plague the African continent, despite various frameworks and agendas that the African Union has tabled and established in relation to countering terrorism. The continuously rising terror campaigns of Boko-Haram particularly in northeastern Nigeria and Al-Shabaab in Somalia have developed into regional and to a certain extent, continental threats that have undoubtedly crippled the economies and socio-political landscapes of the territories in which they seek to maintain control. Terrorism in Africa is a multi-causal phenomenon which requires a multi-dimensional approach. The focus of this study is to unpack and appraise efforts by the African Union to address and tackle the issue of terrorism in northern Nigeria and the Horn of Africa. By employing Critical Terrorism Studies (CTS) as the theoretical framework, this study broadly offers an assessment and critique of the counter-terrorism agenda of the African Union (AU) with specific reference to the inter-governmental organizations’ military-driven approach, particularly in its efforts to fight the threat of terrorism waged by Boko-Haram and Al-Shabaab. Moreover, this study seeks to uncover how these critiques and further recommendations may assist the AU to adopt multi-dimensional strategies in its efforts to combat Boko-Haram in northeastern Nigeria and Al-Shabaab in the Horn of Africa. In contrast to orthodox approaches to terrorism, Critical Terrorism Studies recognizes the advantages of an all-inclusive theoretical framework that addresses and questions pertinent issues of religion, ethnicity, and poverty amongst other socio-economic and political drivers and root causes influencing organizations such as Boko-Haram and Al-Shabaab. Given that the findings of this study indicate that the largely military approach in both case studies has not ameliorated the threat of terrorism, perhaps an alternative to the military centered strategy should be seriously considered – an approach that seeks to address the primary drivers and root causes which encourage the scourge of terror waged by Boko-Haram and Al-Shabaab. The study recommends that the African Union and its various counter-terrorism institutions need to better prioritize non-military forms of intervention and counter-operations, namely cross-border management; diplomatic engagement; addressing the marginalization of certain religious and ethnic minorities; and dealing with socio-economic disparities such as poverty and unemployment.

ISIXHOSA ABSTRACT: Ubugrogrisi, kuzo zonke iimbonakalo zabo busaqhubeka buxananazile kwilizwekazi lase Afrika, nangona iinkqubo noluhlu lwezinto ezifuna ukwenziwa ezithiwe thaca YIMBUMBA YE AFRIKA kwinzame zokulwisa ubugrogrisi. Imikhankaso eqhubekayo yobugrogrisi ngakumbi eye Boko Haram kumantla empuma elizwe lase Nigeria kwakunye ne Al-Shbaaba e Somalia zingenelele kwinqanaba lokuba sisoyikiso kwimimandla nakwilizwekazi le afrika, into esingisele ekuthomamiseni ukhulo loqoqosho nobume boluntu kwezopolotiko apho lemibutho ifuna ulawulo khona. Ugrogriso kwilizwekazi lase Afrika sisenzo esibangwa zizinto ezahlukeneyo, okunyanzelisa ukuba ukuqubisana nako kube nemiba eyahlukileyo. Oluphononongo lugqamene nokucacisa nzulu iinzame zembumba ye Afrika ekujameleni nasekuceleni umngeni kumbandela wobugrogrisi kwilizwekazi le Afrika. Ngokusebenzisa izifundo ezinzulu kumba wobugrogrisi njenge nkcazo eyingcingane, oluphononongo lunikeza uthekelelo nencoko egwebayo kwinkqubo ye Mbumba ye Afrika yokulwisa ubugrogrisi, kwaye igxininisa kwimibutho eyahlukileyo yoorhulumente ethyalwa zezemikhosi kwinzame zokulwisa ubugrogrisi be Boko-Haram kwakunye ne Al-Shabaab. Okubalulekileyo kukuthi oluphononongo luzama ukuveza ukuba ezincoko zigwebayo nezinye iingcebiso ziyinceda njani imbumba yeAfrika ekumiliseleni iinzame ezahlukileyo ekulwiseni iBoko-Haram kumanntla empuma yelizwe lase Nigeria kwakunye ne Al-Shabaab kwiphondo le Afrika. Ukungalandeli ekhondweni lendlela zokulwisana nobu grogrisi, Izifundo ezinzulu zobugrogrisi ziphawule ukuba semandleni kwenkcazo eyingcingane equbisana negotyagotya imiba yokholo, ubuhlanga kwakunye nendlala njengezinye izinto eziphembelela imibutho efana ne Boko-Haram kwakunye ne Al-Shabaab. Oluphononongo luyaveza ukuba lendlela yokusetyenziswa kwemikhosi kuzo zombini iindlela zophando aluncedanga ukunqanda ubugrogrisi, mhlawumbi enye indlela ngaphandle kokuqononondisa ekusetyenzisweni komkhosi kungafuneka icingisiswe, njengendlela yokuqubisana nomngeni ozingcambu ezisisisekelo sesenzo zobugrogrisi eziphembelelwa ngamaqela afana ne Boko Haran kwakunye ne Al-Shabaab. Oluphononongo lucebisa ukuba imbumba ye Afrika namanye amaziko alwisana nobu grogrisi batyhile phepha limbi ekubekeni phambili ezinye iindlela ezingeze zomkhosi ukungenelela nokuphikisana nenkqubo zokunqunyulwa kwemida, ubunozakuzaku, ukuchwethelwa bucala kwezinye iinkolo neentlanga; nokuqubisana nomngeni wokungalingani kwintlalakahle nomnotho, njengendlala nentswela-ngqesho.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108096
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