Die rol van hekwagters in die stryd teen fopnuus : 'n Suid-Afrikaanse gevallestudie

Maarman, Johann (2020-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: News events such as the presidential elections in the United States of America and the Brexit referendum in the United Kingdom, both in 2016, placed alternative facts and fake news in the spotlight and brought about a turning of the tide in journalism. Also in 2016, the phrase ‘post truth’ became the phrase of the year for the Oxford dictionary and renowned international correspondent Christiane Amanpour described fake news as a tsunami. Pursuant to the rise of social media platforms and their influence on traditional journalism, fake news serves to reiterate the importance of credibility, objectivity, and reliability. The new social news platforms also gave rise to fundamental questions regarding the quality of the public sphere that Facebook and Twitter create; the role of the internet in a democracy, the dilemma of information without context in the new media, as well as issues regarding the regulation of freedom of expression. The researcher set out to determine how gatekeepers at Netwerk24, Die Burger, Beeld and Volksblad, protect these publications against the threat of fake news. The researcher employed libertarian theory and social responsibility theory as theoretical framework. The study was conducted with the use of a qualitative research design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Afrikaans journalists from Media24 – Netwerk24, Die Burger, Beeld and Volksblad – all of whom executed the duties of a gatekeeper at their respective publications. The data was subsequently examined through a process of thematic analysis. It was found that time, reliability of sources, experience, critical thinking and ethics have a cumulative effect that increases the probability that fake news can slip through the existing news filters at Netwerk24, Die Burger, Beeld and Volksblad. Furthermore, it was established that journalists are averse to legislation to regulate fake news and mostly favour social responsibility theory that proposes the self-regulation of the media within the framework of established institutions such as the South African Press Council.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Nuusgebeure soos die presidensiële verkiesing in die VSA en die Brexit-referendum in Brittanje, albei in 2016, het die kwessie van alternatiewe feite en fopnuus opnuut in die kollig geplaas en vir ’n kentering in die joernalistiek gesorg. Ook in 2016 is die woord “post-waarheid” as die Oxford-woordeboek se woord van die jaar aangewys en die bekroonde internasionale korrespondent Christiane Amanpour het fopnuus as ’n tsoenami beskryf. Met die koms van sosialenuusplatforms en die invloed wat dit het op die tradisionele joernalistiek, het fopnuus opnuut die kwessie van geloofwaardigheid, objektiwiteit, en betroubaarheid onderstreep. Die nuwe sosialenuusplatforms het ook fundamentele vrae gebring oor die kwaliteit van die nuwe publieke sfeer wat die internet, Facebook en Twitter skep; oor die rol van die internet in die demokrasie; oor die problematiek van kontekslose inligting in die nuwe media; en oor probleme met regulering en vryheid van spraak. Die navorser wou vasstel hoe hekwagters by Netwerk24, Die Burger, Beeld en Volksblad hulle insuleer teen die bedreiging van fopnuus. Die navorser het die libertynse teorie en die sosiale verantwoordeliksteorie as teoretiese vertrekpunte gebruik. Die studie is uitgevoer deur middel van ’n kwalitatiewe navorsingontwerp. Semi-gestruktueerde onderhoude is met 10 Afrikaanse joernaliste van Media24 – Netwerk24, Die Burger, Beeld en Volksblad – gevoer wat almal die rol van hekwagters by hul onderskeie publikasies vertolk. Die data is deur middel van tematiese analise ontleed. Daardeur is bevind dat tyd, betroubaarheid van bronne, ervaring, kritiese denke en etiek ’n kumalatiewe effek het wat veroorsaak dat fopnuus deur die bestaande nuusfilters van Netwerk24, Die Burger, Beeld en Volksblad kan glip. Daar is ook bevind dat die joernaliste gekant is teen wetgewing teen fopnuus en meer neig na die sosiale verantwoordeliksteorie wat bepaal dat die media selfregulerend moet wees binne die raamwerk van wetgewing en gevestigde instellings soos die Suid-Afrikaanse Persraad.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108046
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