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Development of a reference architecture for the design of tracking and tracing solutions in the supply chain using blockchain technology

dc.contributor.advisorLouw, Louisen_ZA
dc.contributor.advisorPalm, Danielen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorLouw, Wilhelm Nicholasen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Industrial Engineering. Dept. of Industrial Engineering.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-13T08:49:33Z
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-28T12:04:08Z
dc.date.available2020-02-13T08:49:33Z
dc.date.available2020-04-28T12:04:08Z
dc.date.issued2020-04
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107799
dc.descriptionThesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: This masters thesis involves the development of a design reference architecture for the use of blockchain technology in the supply chain. It aims to further the research on blockchains’ use and development, specifically with regards to tracking and tracing. Blockchain is a revolutionary new technology, capable of disrupting today’s supply chains. Originally envisioned for finance, the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, blockchain can maintain an immutable, secure and trusted record of transactions between a network of individuals, who do not necessarily trust one other. This makes it highly applicable to supply chains as it can enable the secure sharing of information between different parties. Supply chains are facing problems due to a lack of information transparency and trust. Traditional supply chains contain a combination of paper-based processes and digital systems, where information is held up in ‘silos’. Lack of end-to-end process integration and information sharing, results in problems regarding tracking and tracing of products. Tracking and tracing is key to digital supply chains as changing consumer behaviour and market conditions demand higher supply chain visibility. Traditional methods are, however, slow, fragmented and ineffective. This makes it problematic to validate a products origin, location or specific characteristics. Blockchain has the potential to facilitate trust and enable end-to-end supply chain visibility. A lack of academic research has caused a paucity of knowledge on the use and implementation of blockchain in the supply chain. Supply chain companies do not understand blockchain, including the various aspects involved in its design. There are currently no identified frameworks, models or architectures that aid in supporting its use in supply chain applications. The main aim of this project is to construct a reference architecture that can support the design of blockchain in the supply chain. Reference architectures define recommended practices and guidelines, that are used as a frame of reference to improve the quality, speed and cost of the information modelling process. Blockchain technology was investigated, its latest technological architectures were identified and its role in supply chain digitalization was defined. Aided by existing reference architectures, a methodology was formed for designing a blockchain reference architecture. The important blockchain design requirements were identified and extracted from blockchain frameworks, case studies and technical architectures. The design reference architecture, for the use of blockchain technology in the supply chain, was constructed. It contains the relevant design guidelines relating to strategy, feasibility, technology, supply chain and product sub-components. It serves as a guide that can be consulted by companies in order to aid decision making. A practical case study application in the FMCG foods supply chain, along with semi structured interviews with industry experts, tested the validity and practicality of the reference architecture. The results motivated that the architecture formalized a collection of knowledge, aiding in the understanding and effective decision making, of blockchain in the supply chain. The design reference architecture furthers knowledge on the application of blockchain technology in the supply chain, and provides a basis for future research and development.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie meesterstesis behels die ontwikkeling van ’n ontwerp-verwysingsargitektuur vir die gebruik van blokketting-tegnologie in die voorsieningsketting. Die projek se doelwit is om die navorsing en gebruik van blokketting-tegnologie in die voorsieningsketting te bevorder, met spesifieke klem op die naspeurbaarheid van produkte. Blokketting, ’n rewolusionêre nuwe tegnologie met die potentisiaal om die huidige voorsieningskettings te ontwrig, is oorspronklik ontwikkel vir finansiele toepassings, as die tegnologie waarop die Bitcoin kriptogeldeenheid gebaseer is. Blokketting het die vermoë om ’n onveranderlike, veilige en betroubare rekord van transaskies te behou, tussen ’n network van individue wat mekaar nie noodwendig hoef te vertrou nie. Dit beteken dat hierdie tegnologie die geleenthied skep vir volle naspeurbaarheid binne enige voorsieningsketting. Huidige voorsieningskettings ervaar probleme as gevolg van ’n gebrek aan inligtingsdeursigtigheid en vertroue. Tradisionele voorsieningskettings gebruik ’n kombinasie van papier-gebaseerde prosesse en digitale stelsels, wat veroorsaak dat inligting in ‘silos’ vasgehou word. Die gebrek aan gedeelde inligting, veroorsaak probleme met die naspeurbaarheid van produkte. Naspeurbaarheid is ’n belangrike komponent van digitale voorsieningskettings, aangesien dit die deursigtigheid van informasie kan verseker. Huidige naspeur metodes is stadig en ondoeltreffend. Dit bemoeilik dus die bevestiging van die oorsprong en kwalitiet van produkte. Blokketting het die vermoë om vertroue in sovel as deursigtighied van die voorsieningsketting te bewerkstellig. Daar is tans ’n gebrek aan akademiese navorsing rondom blokketting-tegnologie wat lei tot ’n gebrek aan kennis oor die gebruik en implementering daarvan in die voorsieningsketting. Daar is tans geen geïdentifiseerde raamwerke, modelle of argitekture, wat die gebruik daarvan in die voorsieningsketting ondersteun nie. Die hoofdoel van die projek is om ’n verwysingsargitektuur te bou wat die ontwerpproses van blokkettingstelsels kan ondersteun. Verwysingsargitekture bevat aanbevole praktyke en riglyne wat gebruik kan word as ’n verwysing om die gehalte, spoed en koste van ’n inligtingstesel ontwerp te verbeter. Die blokketting-tegnologie is nagevors, die nuutste tegnologiese argitekture is geïdentifiseer en die rol daarvan in voorsieningsketting-digitalisering is omskryf. Met behulp van bestaande verwysingsargitekture, is ’n metodologie ontwikkel om ’n blokketting verwysingsargitektuur te ontwerp. Die belangrike vereistes vir die ontwerp van ’n blokketting stelsel geïdentifiseer is vanuit navorsing oor huidige blokketting raamwerke, gevallestudies en tegniese argitekture. Die ontwerpversysingsargitektuur vir die gebruik van blokketting-tegnologie in die voorsieningsketting is gebou. Dit bevat relevante ontwerp riglyne met betrekking tot strategie, tegnologie, uitvoerbaarheid, voorsieningsketting en produk komponente. Dit dien as ’n gids wat deur ondernemings geraadpleeg kan word om besluitneming te ondersteun. ’n Praktiese gevallestudietoepassing in die voedselvoorsieningsketting, tesame met semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude met kundiges in die bedryf, het die geldigheid en praktiese toepassing van die verwysingsargitektuur getoets. Die resultate motiveer dat die argitektuur die nodige inligting bevat wat bydrae kan lewer tot beter begrip en doeltreffende besluitneming van blokketting-tegnologie in die voorsieningsketting. Hierdie ontwerpverwysingsargitektuur bevorder kennis oor die toepassing van blokketting-tegnologie in die voorsieningsketting, en bied ’n basis vir toekomstige navorsing en ontwikkeling.af_ZA
dc.format.extentxiii, 171 leaves : illustrations (some color)
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectBlockchains (Databases)en_ZA
dc.subjectTracking-and-Tracingen_ZA
dc.subjectSupply chainen_ZA
dc.subjectInformation networksen_ZA
dc.subjectBusiness logisticsen_ZA
dc.subjectReference architectureen_ZA
dc.subjectUCTDen_ZA
dc.titleDevelopment of a reference architecture for the design of tracking and tracing solutions in the supply chain using blockchain technologyen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.description.versionMastersen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


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