Evaluation of Irvingia kernels extract as biobased wood adhesive
CITATION: Alawode, A. O., et al. 2020. Evaluation of Irvingia kernels extract as biobased wood adhesive. Journal of Wood Science, 66:12, doi:10.1186/s10086-020-01860-9.
The original publication is available at https://jwoodscience.springeropen.com
Irvingia tree species have been earmarked for domestication in many countries due to their potential as raw materials for various applications, which include biodiesel, cosmetics, perfume, soap, etc. Presently, there is no information on the utilization of kernel seed extract as a potential source of green wood adhesive. This study is focused on investigating the properties of adhesives produced from kernel seeds of two Irvingia wood species i.e. Irvingia gabonensis (IG) and Irvingia wombolu (IW), as well as investigating the improved properties derived from the effect of modification using a few selected modifying agents including glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, epichlorohydrin (EPI) and an acid/base type process modification. Polyethylene (PE) was used along with the glutaraldehyde, glyoxal and epichlorohydrin modifiers in the modification process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted to study the effect of modification on adhesive properties. The glycosidic carbon of the unmodified extracts and that of the EPI modified sample were not sensitive to chain conformations. Principal components (PC) 1 and 2 explained 85.19 and 9.54%, respectively, of the total variability in FTIR spectra among the modified and unmodified adhesives. The unmodified samples for IG and IW exhibited one peak with crystallization temperatures of 18.7 and 14.4 °C, respectively, indicating only one component exhibits some low degree crystallinity. The adhesive properties of the modified extracts were tested on wood veneers according to ASTM standard. The shear strength of the modified adhesives ranged from 1.5 to 3.93 MPa and 1.7 to 4.05 MPa for IG and IW, respectively. The modified samples containing PE showed marked improvement in the shear strength. The highest values were about 63% higher than the shear strength of unmodified samples with least shear strength. The results indicated that the modification of Irvingia-based adhesives had a great contribution to their performance as natural wood adhesives.