For king and country: an ideological critical study of covenant in Jeremiah 11:1-17 and Kingship in Jeremiah 22:1-23:8 as examples of cultural violence

Gertzen, Marius (2019-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study offers an ideological critical investigation of the notion of covenant in Jeremiah 11:1-17 and kingship in Jeremiah 22:1-23:8 as examples of cultural violence. Employing the theoretical framework of Johan Galtung with reference to direct, structural and cultural violence, the ideological-literary aspects and ideological-contextual aspects of the world in, behind and in front of these texts are explored. In Chapter 2 of this study the theoretical framework of Galtung pertaining to direct, structural and cultural violence is critically discussed. Cultural violence as exemplified by, for instance, religion and ideology is shown by Galtung to justify or legitimise direct or structural violence. Cultural violence makes direct and structural violence look, even feel, right – or at least not wrong. Cultural violence thus plays a crucial role in legitimising acts of direct violence, and rendering the fact of structural violence acceptable in society. In Chapter 3, the world of Jeremiah is investigated. Textual aspects of structure, genre and the Deuteronomistic source informing Jeremiah are brought into conversation with the historical, social and religious aspects of the world of Jeremiah. In Chapter 4 the notion of covenant is defined and interrogated. After offering a diachronic as well as a synchronic analysis of covenant in the Hebrew Bible in its Ancient Near Eastern (ANE) context, this chapter addresses the way in which covenant features in Jeremiah 11:1-17. This includes the ideological-literary manifestation of judgement; the text’s close affinity to the Deuteronomistic ideological worldview; and Jeremiah 11’s correspondence with the temple sermon of Jeremiah 7. These aspects are then used to investigate the ways in which the temple in Jerusalem can be perceived as an example of structural violence and the process of the centralisation of the cult as an example of direct violence. Thereafter, covenant as cultural violence is explored in terms of the covenantal ideology of election; the covenantal ideology of Zion; and the covenantal ideology of the Deuteronomistic. Lastly, it is demonstrated how the direct, structural and cultural violence of covenant in Jeremiah 11:1-17 are closely related to each other by utilising the violence triangle and violence strata image of Galtung. In Chapter 5 of this study the notion of kingship is defined and interrogated. The monarchical state is identified as a theoretical vehicle that is useful for investigating kingship in Israel. The synchronic focus of kingship on divine election and the upholding of justice in the ANE and Israel is investigated, where after diachronic aspects of the divine election and the upholding of justice of selected kings of Israel are explored in conjunction with aspects of direct and structural violence pertaining to the monarchical states during the reign of these kings. The direct violence of the monarchical state of Jehoiakim is discussed in terms of the practise of corvée labour, as well as the structural violence of the monarchical state pertaining to functions of the state as introduced by Solomon but continuing to the time of Jehoiakim. The theology of kingship is discussed especially with reference to the way in which the future promise of a just king is used in Jeremiah 22:1-23:8 to save the institution of kingship. Mention is also made of how the royal psalms can be seen as the popular discourse that kept the elective position of the king before YHWH alive, even if the prophets saw this relationship as a thing of the past. Lastly, the direct, structural and cultural violence of kingship in Jeremiah 22:1-23:8 are once again brought into conversation with each other by employing the violence triangle and violence strata image of Galtung. Finally, the study shows how an understanding of the theoretical framework of Galtung regarding violence may help one to better understand the direct, structural and cultural violence of the ideology of Apartheid in a contemporary South African context. The study concludes by showing the dangers of an inerrant view of Scripture, but also cautions against limiting the violence of Scripture to only texts that contain visible direct violence.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie bied 'n ideologiese kritiese ondersoek na die begrip van die verbond in Jeremia 11:1-17 en koningskap in Jeremia 22:1-23:8 as voorbeelde van kulturele geweld. Met verwysing na die teoretiese raamwerk van Johan Galtung aangaande direkte, strukturele en kulturele geweld, word die ideologies-literêre aspekte en ideologies-kontekstuele aspekte van die wêreld binne, agter en voor hierdie tekste ondersoek. In Hoofstuk 2 van hierdie studie word Galtung se teoretiese raamwerk van direkte, strukturele en kulturele geweld krities bespreek. Kulturele geweld, soos byvoorbeeld verteenwoordig in godsdiens en ideologie, word volgens Galtung aangewend om direkte en strukturele geweld te regverdig. Kulturele geweld laat direkte en strukturele geweld reg lyk of reg voel – of ten minste nie verkeerd nie. Kulturele geweld speel dus 'n deurslaggewende rol in die legitimering van dade van direkte geweld, asook om die realiteit van strukturele geweld in die samelewing aanvaarbaar te maak. In Hoofstuk 3 word die wêreld van Jeremia ondersoek. Tekstuele aspekte van struktuur, genre en die Deuteronomistiese bron van Jeremia word in gesprek gebring met die historiese, sosiale en godsdienstige aspekte van die wêreld van Jeremia. In Hoofstuk 4 word die begrip verbond gedefinieer en ondersoek. Na die aanbieding van 'n diakroniese sowel as 'n sinkroniese analise van die verbond in die Hebreeuse Bybel in die Ou Nabye Oosterse (ONO) konteks, fokus hierdie hoofstuk op die manier waarop die verbond in Jeremia 11:1-17 voorkom. Dit sluit in die ideologies-literêre manifestering van oordeel; die teks se noue verband met die Deuteronomistiese ideologiese wêreldbeskouing; en die ooreenkomste van Jeremia 11 met die tempelpreek van Jeremia 7. Hierdie aspekte word dan gebruik om die maniere te ondersoek waarop die tempel in Jerusalem beskou kan word as 'n voorbeeld van strukturele geweld, en die proses van die sentralisering van die kultus as 'n voorbeeld van direkte geweld. Daarna word die verbond as kulturele geweld ondersoek in terme van die verbonds-ideologie van uitverkiesing; die verbonds-ideologie van Sion; en die verbonds-ideologie van die Deuteronomis. Ten slotte word die geweldsdriehoek en geweld-stratabeeld van Galtung gebruik om aan te toon hoe die direkte, strukturele en kulturele geweld van die verbond in Jeremia 11:1-17 nou aan mekaar verwant is . In Hoofstuk 5 van hierdie studie word die begrip koningskap gedefinieer en ondervra. Die monargiese staat word geïdentifiseer as 'n teoretiese voertuig wat nuttig is om koningskap in Israel te ondersoek. Die sinkroniese fokus van koningskap op goddelike uitverkiesing en die handhawing van geregtigheid in die ONO en Israel word ondersoek, waarna diakroniese aspekte van die goddelike uitverkiesing en die handhawing van geregtigheid van uitgesoekte konings van Israel ondersoek word saam met aspekte van direkte en strukturele geweld met betrekking op die monargiese state tydens die heerskappy van hierdie konings. Die direkte geweld van die monargiese staat van Jojakim word bespreek in terme van die beoefening van korvée-arbeid, sowel as die strukturele geweld van die monargiese staat wat betrekking het op die funksies van die staat soos deur Salomo bekend gestel, maar wat nog in plek was in die tyd van Jojakim. Die teologie van koningskap word veral bespreek met verwysing na die manier waarop die toekomstige belofte van 'n regverdige koning in Jeremia 22:1-23:8 gebruik word om die instelling van koningskap te red. Daar word ook melding gemaak van hoe die koninklike psalms gesien kan word as die gewilde diskoers wat die uitverkiesingsposisie van die koning voor YHWH lewend gehou het, selfs al was geen verhouding meer moontlik volgens die profete nie. Laastens word die geweldsdriehoek en geweld-stratabeeld van Galtung gebruik om die direkte, strukturele en kulturele geweld van koningskap in Jeremia 22: 1-23:8 weer in gesprek met mekaar te bring. Ten slotte toon die studie hoe 'n begrip van die teoretiese raamwerk van Galtung aangaande geweld, kan help om die direkte, strukturele en kulturele geweld rondom die ideologie van Apartheid in 'n kontemporêre Suid-Afrikaanse konteks beter te verstaan. Die studie sluit af deur die gevare van 'n onverskillige siening van die Skrif aan te dui, maar waarsku ook daarteen om die geweld van die Skrif te beperk tot slegs tekste wat sigbare direkte geweld bevat.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107133
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